skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2022

Title: General theory and observation of Cherenkov radiation induced by multimode solitons
Abstract Advancements in computational capabilities along with the possibility of accessing high power levels have stimulated a reconsideration of multimode fibers. Multimode fibers are nowadays intensely pursued in terms of addressing longstanding issues related to information bandwidth and implementing new classes of high-power laser sources. In addition, the multifaceted nature of this platform, arising from the complexity associated with hundreds and thousands of interacting modes, has provided a fertile ground for observing novel physical effects. However, this same complexity has introduced a formidable challenge in understanding these newly emerging physical phenomena. Here, we provide a comprehensive theory capable of explaining the distinct Cherenkov radiation lines produced during multimode soliton fission events taking place in nonlinear multimode optical fibers. Our analysis reveals that this broadband dispersive wave emission is a direct byproduct of the nonlinear merging of the constituent modes comprising the resulting multimode soliton entities, and is possible in both the normal and anomalous dispersive regions. These theoretical predictions are experimentally and numerically corroborated in both parabolic and step-index multimode silica waveguides. Effects arising from different soliton modal compositions can also be accounted for, using this model. At a more fundamental level, our results are expected to further facilitate our more » understanding of the underlying physics associated with these complex “many-body” nonlinear processes. « less
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Communications Physics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the processes of multimode soliton fission and dispersive wave generation in parabolic-index multimode fibers, are substantially altered when the rate of intermodal nonlinear interactions is progressively increased during propagation.
  2. Abstract The ability to engineer the spatial wavefunction of photons has enabled a variety of quantum protocols for communication, sensing, and information processing. These protocols exploit the high dimensionality of structured light enabling the encoding of multiple bits of information in a single photon, the measurement of small physical parameters, and the achievement of unprecedented levels of security in schemes for cryptography. Unfortunately, the potential of structured light has been restrained to free-space platforms in which the spatial profile of photons is preserved. Here, we make an important step forward to using structured light for fiber optical communication. We introduce a classical encryption protocol in which the propagation of high-dimensional spatial modes in multimode fibers is used as a natural mechanism for encryption. This provides a secure communication channel for data transmission. The information encoded in spatial modes is retrieved using artificial neural networks, which are trained from the intensity distributions of experimentally detected spatial modes. Our on-fiber communication platform allows us to use single spatial modes for information encoding as well as the high-dimensional superposition modes for bit-by-bit and byte-by-byte encoding respectively. This protocol enables one to recover messages and images with almost perfect accuracy. Our classical smart protocolmore »for high-dimensional encryption in optical fibers provides a platform that can be adapted to address increased per-photon information capacity at the quantum level, while maintaining the fidelity of information transfer. This is key for quantum technologies relying on structured fields of light, particularly those that are challenged by free-space propagation.« less
  3. Accurate characterization of the mechanical properties of the human brain at both microscopic and macroscopic length scales is a critical requirement for modeling of traumatic brain injury and brain folding. To date, most experimental studies that employ classical tension/compression/shear tests report the mechanical properties of the brain averaged over both the gray and white matter within the macroscopic regions of interest. As a result, there is a missing correlation between the independent mechanical properties of the microscopic constituent elements and the composite bulk macroscopic mechanical properties of the tissue. This microstructural computational study aims to inversely predict the hyperelastic mechanical properties of the axonal fibers and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) from the bulk tissue's mechanical properties. We develop a representative volume element (RVE) model of the bulk tissue consisting of axonal fibers and ECM with the embedded element technique. A multiobjective optimization technique is implemented to calibrate the model and establish the independent mechanical properties of axonal fibers and ECM based on seven previously reported experimental mechanical tests for bulk white matter tissue from the corpus callosum. The result of the study shows that the discrepancy between the reported values for the elastic behavior of white matter in literaturemore »stems from the anisotropy of the tissue at the microscale. The shear modulus of the axonal fiber is seven times larger than the ECM, with axonal fibers that also show greater nonlinearity, contrary to the common assumption that both components exhibit identical nonlinear characteristics. Statement of significance The reported mechanical properties of white matter microstructure used in traumatic brain injury or brain mechanics studies vary widely, in some cases by up to two orders of magnitude. Currently, the material parameters of the white matter microstructure are identified by a single loading mode or ultimately two modes of the bulk tissue. The presented material models only define the response of the bulk and homogenized white matter at a macroscopic scale and cannot explicitly capture the connection between the material properties of microstructure and bulk structure. To fill this knowledge gap, our study characterizes the hyperelastic material properties of axonal fibers and ECM using microscale computational modeling and multiobjective optimization. The hyperelastic material properties for axonal fibers and ECM presented in this study are more accurate than previously proposed because they have been optimized using seven or six loading modes of the bulk tissue, which were previously limited to only two of the seven possible loading modes. As such, the predicted values with high accuracy could be used in various computational modeling studies. The systematic characterization of the material properties of the human brain tissue at both macro- and microscales will lead to more accurate computational predictions, which will enable a better understanding of injury criteria, and has a positive impact on the improved development of smart protection systems, and more accurate prediction of brain development and disease progression.« less
  4. We experimentally demonstrate a pump-pulse-induced conversion of noise into solitons in multimode optical fibers. The process is based on the recently discovered phenomenon of soliton self-mode conversion, where a pump soliton in a higher-order spatial mode crafts another well-defined soliton, originating purely from noise, in a lower-order mode at a longer wavelength through intermodal Raman scattering. The lack of the need for any seed or cavity feedback demonstrates that soliton self-mode conversion is a fundamentally unavoidable, but nevertheless tailorable and hence useful, self-organizing nonlinear optical effect capable of turning noise into transform limited solitons.

  5. Ultrashort pulses propagating in nonlinear nanophotonic waveguides can simultaneously leverage both temporal and spatial field confinement, promising a route towards single-photon nonlinearities in an all-photonic platform. In this multimode quantum regime, however, faithful numerical simulations of pulse dynamics naïvely require a representation of the state in an exponentially large Hilbert space. Here, we employ a time-domain, matrix product state (MPS) representation to enable efficient simulations by exploiting the entanglement structure of the system. To extract physical insight from these simulations, we develop an algorithm to unravel the MPS quantum state into constituent temporal supermodes, enabling, e.g., access to the phase-space portraits of arbitrary pulse waveforms. As a demonstration, we perform exact numerical simulations of a Kerr soliton in the quantum regime. We observe the development of non-classical Wigner-function negativity in the solitonic mode as well as quantum corrections to the semiclassical dynamics of the pulse. A similar analysis ofχ<#comment/>(2)simultons reveals a unique entanglement structure between the fundamental and second harmonics. Our approach is also readily compatible with quantum trajectory theory, allowing full quantum treatment of propagation loss and decoherence. We expect this work to establish the MPS technique as part of a unified engineering framework formore »the emerging field of broadband quantum photonics.

    « less