- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1612 to 1623
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Differences in olfactory bulb mitral cell spiking with ortho- and retronasal stimulation revealed by data-driven modelsMigliore, Michele (Ed.)The majority of olfaction studies focus on orthonasal stimulation where odors enter via the front nasal cavity, while retronasal olfaction, where odors enter the rear of the nasal cavity during feeding, is understudied. The coding of retronasal odors via coordinated spiking of neurons in the olfactory bulb ( OB ) is largely unknown despite evidence that higher level processing is different than orthonasal. To this end, we use multi-electrode array in vivo recordings of rat OB mitral cells ( MC ) in response to a food odor with both modes of stimulation, and find significant differences in evoked firing rates and spike count covariances (i.e., noise correlations). Differences in spiking activity often have implications for sensory coding, thus we develop a single-compartment biophysical OB model that is able to reproduce key properties of important OB cell types. Prior experiments in olfactory receptor neurons ( ORN ) showed retro stimulation yields slower and spatially smaller ORN inputs than with ortho, yet whether this is consequential for OB activity remains unknown. Indeed with these specifications for ORN inputs, our OB model captures the salient trends in our OB data. We also analyze how first and second order ORN input statistics dynamically transfermore »
6 Hz Active Anticonvulsant Fluorinated N-Benzamide Enaminones and Their Inhibitory Neuronal ActivityA small library of novel fluorinated N-benzamide enaminones were synthesized and evaluated in a battery of acute preclinical seizure models. Three compounds (GSA 62, TTA 35, and WWB 67) were found to have good anticonvulsant activity in the 6-Hz ‘psychomotor’ 44-mA rodent model. The focus of this study was to elucidate the active analogs’ mode of action on seizure-related molecular targets. Electrophysiology studies were employed to evaluate the compounds’ ability to inhibit neuronal activity in central olfactory neurons, mitral cells, and sensory-like ND7/23 cells, which express an assortment of voltage and ligand-gated ion channels. We did not find any significant effects of the three compounds on action potential generation in mitral cells. The treatment of ND7/23 cells with 50 µM of GSA 62, TTA 35, and WWB 67 generated a significant reduction in the amplitude of whole-cell sodium currents. Similar treatment of ND7/23 cells with these compounds had no effect on T-type calcium currents, indicating that fluorinated N-benzamide enaminone analogs may have a selective effect on voltage-gated sodium channels, but not calcium channels.
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The ability to identify odors in the environment is crucial for survival and reproduction. However, whether olfactory processing in higher-order brain centers is influenced by an animal’s physiological condition is unknown. We used
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