skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on July 6, 2022

Title: Assessing tension metrics with dark energy survey and Planck data
ABSTRACT Quantifying tensions – inconsistencies amongst measurements of cosmological parameters by different experiments – has emerged as a crucial part of modern cosmological data analysis. Statistically significant tensions between two experiments or cosmological probes may indicate new physics extending beyond the standard cosmological model and need to be promptly identified. We apply several tension estimators proposed in the literature to the dark energy survey (DES) large-scale structure measurement and Planck cosmic microwave background data. We first evaluate the responsiveness of these metrics to an input tension artificially introduced between the two, using synthetic DES data. We then apply the metrics to the comparison of Planck and actual DES Year 1 data. We find that the parameter differences, Eigentension, and Suspiciousness metrics all yield similar results on both simulated and real data, while the Bayes ratio is inconsistent with the rest due to its dependence on the prior volume. Using these metrics, we calculate the tension between DES Year 1 3 × 2pt and Planck, finding the surveys to be in ∼2.3σ tension under the ΛCDM paradigm. This suite of metrics provides a toolset for robustly testing tensions in the DES Year 3 data and beyond.
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
6179 to 6194
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract In recent years discrepancies have emerged in measurements of the present-day rate of expansion of the universe H 0 and in estimates of the clustering of matter S 8 . Using the most recent cosmological observations we reexamine a novel model proposed to address these tensions, in which cold dark matter disintegrates into dark radiation. The disintegration process is controlled by its rate Q  = αℋρ ddm , where α is a (constant) dimensionless parameter quantifying the strength of the disintegration mechanism and ℋ is the conformal Hubble rate in the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe and ρ ddm is themore »energy density of the disintegrating cold dark matter. We constrain this model with the latest 2018 Planck temperature and polarization data, showing that there is no evidence for α≠ 0 and that it cannot solve the H 0 tension below 3σ, clashing with the result obtained by analyzing the Planck 2015 temperature data. We also investigate two possible extensions of the model in which the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w ≠ -1. In this case it is possible to combine Planck data with the SH0ES measurement, and we demonstrate that in both these models the H 0 tension is resolved at the 1σ level, but the condition w ≠ -1 exacerbates the S 8 tension. We also demonstrate that the addition of intermediate-redshift data (from the Pantheon supernova type Ia dataset and baryon acoustic oscillations) weakens the effectiveness of all these models to address the H 0 and S 8 tensions.« less
  2. A bstract The mirror twin Higgs model (MTH) is a solution to the Higgs hierarchy problem that provides well-predicted cosmological signatures with only three extra parameters: the temperature of the twin sector, the abundance of twin baryons, and the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of twin electroweak symmetry breaking. These parameters specify the behavior of twin radiation and the acoustic oscillations of twin baryons, which lead to testable effects on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale structure (LSS). While collider searches can only probe the twin VEV, through a fit to cosmological data we show that the existing CMB (Planck18more »TTTEEE+lowE+lowT+lensing) and LSS (KV450) data already provide useful constraints on the remaining MTH parameters. Additionally, we show that the presence of twin radiation in this model can raise the Hubble constant H 0 while the scattering twin baryons can reduce the matter fluctuations S 8 , which helps to relax the observed H 0 and S 8 tensions simultaneously. This scenario is different from the typical ΛCDM + ∆ N eff model, in which extra radiation helps with the Hubble tension but worsens the S 8 tension. For instance, when including the SH0ES and 2013 Planck SZ data in the fit, we find that a universe with ≳ 20% of the dark matter comprised of twin baryons is preferred over ΛCDM by ∼ 4 σ . If the twin sector is indeed responsible for resolving the H 0 and S 8 tensions, future measurements from the Euclid satellite and CMB Stage 4 experiment will further measure the twin parameters to O (1 − 10%)-level precision. Our study demonstrates how models with hidden naturalness can potentially be probed using precision cosmological data.« less

    The existence of cosmic superstrings may be probed by astronomical time domain surveys. When crossing the line of sight to point-like sources, strings produce a distinctive microlensing signature. We consider two avenues to hunt for a relic population of superstring loops: frequent monitoring of (1) stars in Andromeda, lensed by loops in the haloes of the Milky-Way and Andromeda and (2) supernovae at cosmological distances, lensed by loops in the intergalactic medium. We assess the potential of such experiments to detect and/or constrain strings with a range of tensions, 10−15 ≲ Gμ/c2 ≲ 10−6. The practical sensitivity is tiedmore »to cadence of observations which we explore in detail. We forecast that high-cadence monitoring of ∼105 stars on the far side of Andromeda over a year-long period will detect microlensing events if Gμ/c2 ∼ 10−13, while ∼106 stars will detect events if 10−13.5 < Gμ/c2 < 10−11.5; the upper and lower bounds of the accessible tension range continue to expand as the number of stars rises. We also analyse the ability to reject models in the absence of fluctuations. While challenging, these studies are within reach of forthcoming time-domain surveys. Supernova observations can hypothetically constrain models with 10−12 < Gμ/c2 < 10−6 without any optimization of the survey cadence. However, the event rate forecast suggests it will be difficult to reject models of interest. As a demonstration, we use observations from the Pantheon Type Ia supernova cosmology data set to place modest constraints on the number density of cosmic superstrings in a poorly tested region of the parameter space.

    « less
  4. ABSTRACT Measurements of large-scale structure are interpreted using theoretical predictions for the matter distribution, including potential impacts of baryonic physics. We constrain the feedback strength of baryons jointly with cosmology using weak lensing and galaxy clustering observables (3 × 2pt) of Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 data in combination with external information from baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and Planck cosmic microwave background polarization. Our baryon modelling is informed by a set of hydrodynamical simulations that span a variety of baryon scenarios; we span this space via a Principal Component (PC) analysis of the summary statistics extracted from these simulations. We showmore »that at the level of DES Y1 constraining power, one PC is sufficient to describe the variation of baryonic effects in the observables, and the first PC amplitude (Q1) generally reflects the strength of baryon feedback. With the upper limit of Q1 prior being bound by the Illustris feedback scenarios, we reach $\sim 20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ improvement in the constraint of $S_8=\sigma _8(\Omega _{\rm m}/0.3)^{0.5}=0.788^{+0.018}_{-0.021}$ compared to the original DES 3 × 2pt analysis. This gain is driven by the inclusion of small-scale cosmic shear information down to 2.5 arcmin, which was excluded in previous DES analyses that did not model baryonic physics. We obtain $S_8=0.781^{+0.014}_{-0.015}$ for the combined DES Y1+Planck EE+BAO analysis with a non-informative Q1 prior. In terms of the baryon constraints, we measure $Q_1=1.14^{+2.20}_{-2.80}$ for DES Y1 only and $Q_1=1.42^{+1.63}_{-1.48}$ for DESY1+Planck EE+BAO, allowing us to exclude one of the most extreme AGN feedback hydrodynamical scenario at more than 2σ.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present a blind time-delay cosmographic analysis for the lens system DES J0408−5354. This system is extraordinary for the presence of two sets of multiple images at different redshifts, which provide the opportunity to obtain more information at the cost of increased modelling complexity with respect to previously analysed systems. We perform detailed modelling of the mass distribution for this lens system using three band Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We combine the measured time delays, line-of-sight central velocity dispersion of the deflector, and statistically constrained external convergence with our lens models to estimate two cosmological distances. We measure themore »‘effective’ time-delay distance corresponding to the redshifts of the deflector and the lensed quasar $D_{\Delta t}^{\rm eff}=$$3382_{-115}^{+146}$ Mpc and the angular diameter distance to the deflector Dd = $1711_{-280}^{+376}$ Mpc, with covariance between the two distances. From these constraints on the cosmological distances, we infer the Hubble constant H0= $74.2_{-3.0}^{+2.7}$ km s−1 Mpc−1 assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology and a uniform prior for Ωm as $\Omega _{\rm m} \sim \mathcal {U}(0.05, 0.5)$. This measurement gives the most precise constraint on H0 to date from a single lens. Our measurement is consistent with that obtained from the previous sample of six lenses analysed by the H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL’s Wellspring (H0LiCOW) collaboration. It is also consistent with measurements of H0 based on the local distance ladder, reinforcing the tension with the inference from early Universe probes, for example, with 2.2σ discrepancy from the cosmic microwave background measurement.« less