Drugs of abuse, such as opiates, have been widely associated with enhancing HIV replication, accelerating disease progression and diminishing host-immune responses, thereby making it harder to effectively manage HIV infection. It is thus important to study the effects of drugs of abuse on HIV-infection and immune responses. Here, we develop mathematical models that incorporate the effects of morphine-altered antibody responses on HIV/SIV dynamics. Based on fitting the model to experimental data from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections in control and morphine-addicted macaques, we found that two of the most significant effects of virus specific antibodies are neutralizing viral particles and enhancing viral clearance. Using our model, we quantified how morphine alters virus-specific antibody responses, and how this alteration affects the key components of virus dynamics such as infection rate, virus clearance, viral load, CD4+T cell count, and CD4+T cell loss in SIV-infected macaques under conditioning with morphine. We found that in a subpopulation of SIV-infected morphine addicted macaques, the presence of drugs of abuse may cause significantly diminished antibody responses, resulting in more severe infection with increased SIV infectivity, a decreased viral clearance rate, increased viral load, and higher CD4+T cell loss.
- Regoes, Roland R.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- PLOS Computational Biology
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules are known to undergo conformational changes in response to various environmental stimuli including temperature, pH, and ligands. In particular, viral RNA molecules are a key example of conformationally adapting molecules that have evolved to switch between many functional conformations. The transactivation response element (TAR) RNA from the type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a viral RNA molecule that is being increasingly explored as a potential therapeutic target due to its role in the viral replication process. In this work, we have studied the dynamics in TAR RNA in apo and liganded states by performing explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations initiated with 27 distinct structures. We determined that the TAR RNA structure is significantly stabilized on ligand binding with especially decreased fluctuations in its two helices. This rigidity is further coupled with the decreased flipping of bulge nucleotides, which were observed to flip more frequently in the absence of ligands. We found that initially-distinct structures of TAR RNA converged to similar conformations on removing ligands. We also report that conformational dynamics in unliganded TAR structures leads to the formation of binding pockets capable of accommodating ligands of various sizes.
Recent experimental evidence suggests that spatial heterogeneity plays an important role in within‐host infections caused by different viruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To examine the spatial effects of viral infections, in this paper we study the asymptotic spreading in a within‐host viral infection model, which describes the spatial expansion speeds of viruses and infected cells within an infected host. We first establish the boundedness of solutions to the Cauchy problem via local ‐estimates and dual arguments. Then the spreading speed is estimated when the basic reproduction number of the corresponding kinetic system is larger than one. More precisely, the upper bounds of the spreading speed are given by constructing suitable upper solutions while the lower bounds of the spreading speed are obtained by introducing an auxiliary equation with nonlocal delay. When the basic reproduction number of the corresponding kinetic system is less than or equal to one, the virus dies out uniformly. Finally, we present some numerical simulations to illustrate our theoretical findings and discuss the biological relevance of these results.
Rapid, efficient and activation-neutral gene editing of polyclonal primary human resting CD4+ T cells allows complex functional analysesAbstract CD4 + T cells are central mediators of adaptive and innate immune responses and constitute a major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vivo. Detailed investigations of resting human CD4 + T cells have been precluded by the absence of efficient approaches for genetic manipulation limiting our understanding of HIV replication and restricting efforts to find a cure. Here we report a method for rapid, efficient, activation-neutral gene editing of resting, polyclonal human CD4 + T cells using optimized cell cultivation and nucleofection conditions of Cas9–guide RNA ribonucleoprotein complexes. Up to six genes, including HIV dependency and restriction factors, were knocked out individually or simultaneously and functionally characterized. Moreover, we demonstrate the knock in of double-stranded DNA donor templates into different endogenous loci, enabling the study of the physiological interplay of cellular and viral components at single-cell resolution. Together, this technique allows improved molecular and functional characterizations of HIV biology and general immune functions in resting CD4 + T cells.
Quantifying the dynamics of viral recombination during free virus and cell-to-cell transmission in HIV-1 infectionAbstract Recombination has been shown to contribute to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) evolution in vivo, but the underlying dynamics are extremely complex, depending on the nature of the fitness landscapes and of epistatic interactions. A less well-studied determinant of recombinant evolution is the mode of virus transmission in the cell population. HIV-1 can spread by free virus transmission, resulting largely in singly infected cells, and also by direct cell-to-cell transmission, resulting in the simultaneous infection of cells with multiple viruses. We investigate the contribution of these two transmission pathways to recombinant evolution, by applying mathematical models to in vitro experimental data on the growth of fluorescent reporter viruses under static conditions (where both transmission pathways operate), and under gentle shaking conditions, where cell-to-cell transmission is largely inhibited. The parameterized mathematical models are then used to extrapolate the viral evolutionary dynamics beyond the experimental settings. Assuming a fixed basic reproductive ratio of the virus (independent of transmission pathway), we find that recombinant evolution is fastest if virus spread is driven only by cell-to-cell transmission and slows down if both transmission pathways operate. Recombinant evolution is slowest if all virus spread occurs through free virus transmission. This is due to cell-to-cell transmissionmore »