skip to main content

Title: A distributed rule‐based power management strategy in a photovoltaic/hybrid energy storage based on an active compensation filtering technique
This paper proposes a distributed rule-based power management strategy for dynamic power balancing and power smoothing in a photovoltaic (PV)/battery-supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system. The system contains a PV system, a battery-supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS), and a group of loads. Firstly, an active compensation technique is proposed which improves the efficiency of the power smoothing filter. Then, a distributed supervisory control technique is employed that prevents the BESS and SC from SOC violation while maintaining the balance between generation and load. To this end, the system components are divided into three different reactive agents including an HESS agent, a PV agent, and a load agent. These agents react to the system changes by switching their operational mode upon satisfying a predefined rule. To analyse the hybrid dynamical behaviour of the agents and design the supervisory controllers, the agents are modelled in hybrid automata frameworks. It is shown that the proposed distributed approach reduces the complexity of the supervisory control system and increases its scalability compared to its equivalent centralized method. Finally, the performance of the proposed approach is validated using a test system simulated in MATLAB/Simulink.
Authors:
;
Award ID(s):
1757207
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10294205
Journal Name:
IET Renewable Power Generation
ISSN:
1752-1416
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Filtration-based (FB) power/current allocation of battery-supercapacitor (SC) hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) is the most common approach in DC microgrid (MG) applications. In this approach, a low-pass or a high-pass filter is utilized to decompose the input power/current of HESS into high-frequency and low-frequency components and then assign the high-frequency parts to SC. Moreover, to avoid the state of charge violation (SoC) of SC, this approach requires a rule-based supervisory controller which may result in the discontinuous operation of SC. This paper first provides a small-signal stability analysis to investigate the impact of an FB current allocation system on themore »dynamic stability of an islanded DC MG in which a grid-forming HESS supplies a constant power load (CPL). Then, it shows that the continuous operation of SC is essential if the grid-forming HESS is loaded by large CPLs. To address this issue, this paper proposes a model predictive control (MPC) strategy that works in tandem with a high-pass filter to perform the current assignment between the battery and SC. This approach automatically restores the SoC of SC after sudden load changes and limits its SoC variation in a predefined range, so that ensure the continuous operation of SC. As a result, the proposed FB-MPC method indirectly enables the MG’s proportional-integral (PI) voltage controller to operate with higher gain values leading to better transient response and voltage quality. The performance of the proposed approach is then validated by simulating the system in MATLAB/Simulink.« less
  2. At high penetration level of photovoltaic (PV) generators, their abrupt disturbances (caused by moving clouds) cause voltage and frequency perturbations and increase system losses. Meanwhile, the daily irradiation profile increases the slope in the net-load profile, for example, California duck curve, which imposes the challenge of quickly bringing on-line conventional generators in the early evening hours. Accordingly, this paper presents an approach to achieve two objectives: (1) address abrupt disturbances caused by PV generators, and (2) shape the net load profile. The approach is based on employing battery energy storage (BES) systems coupled with PV generators and equipped with propermore »controls. The proposed BES addresses these two issues by realizing flexible power ramp-up and ramp-down rates by the combined PV and BES. This paper presents the principles, modeling and control design aspects of the proposed system. A hybrid dc/ac study system is simulated and the effectiveness of the proposed BES in reducing the impacts of disturbances on both the dc and ac subsystems is verified. It is then shown that the proposed PV-BES modifies the daily load profile to mitigate the required challenge for quickly bringing on-line synchronous generators.« less
  3. As technology advances and cities become more innovative, the need to harvest energy to power intelligent devices at remote locations, such as wireless sensors, is increasing. This paper focuses on studying and simulating an energy management system (EMS) for energy harvesting with a battery and a supercapacitor for low power applications. Lithium-ion batteries are the primary energy storage source for low power applications due to their high energy density and efficiency. On the other hand, the supercapacitors excel in fast charge and discharge. Furthermore, supercapacitors tolerate high currents due to their low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The supercapacitor in themore »system increases the time response of the power delivery to the load, and it also absorbs the high currents in the system. Moreover, the supercapacitor covers short-time load demand due to the fluctuation of the renewable source. The EMS monitors the proposed system to maintain power to the load either from the renewable source or the energy storage. The power flow of the energy storage is controlled via DC-DC bidirectional converters. The lithium-ion battery is charged via a constant current (CC) using a sliding mode controller (SMC) and a constant voltage (CV) via a typical PI controller. The response of the SMC current controller is compared with PI and Fuzzy current controller. Furthermore, the performance of a system having and not having a supercapacitor is compared. Finally, MATLAB modeling system simulation and experimental implementation results are analyzed and presented.« less
  4. Distributed power generation plants with combined photovoltaic (PV) systems and integrated energy storage for grid-connected applications have seen an increase in research interest in recent years. However, the combination of multiple energy sources requires numerous DC-DC converters and thus becomes more complex. To address this issue, a multiport bidirectional DC-DC LLC resonant converter for grid connected applications is presented in this research. In order to minimize the control complexity of the proposed system, a zone based controller approach with an integrated modified maximum power point tracking (MMPPT) method, which is based on the incremental conductance method, is also developed. Thismore »proposed controller is able to regulate the converter voltage and power flow while either delivering or taking power from the utility grid. The converter presented in this study contains a bidirectional buck-boost converter and an LLC resonant converter in addition to a voltage source grid-tied inverter which are interfacing the PV, the battery and the utility. Extensive simulation analyses through MATLAB/Simulink have proved the operations of the proposed topology.« less
  5. In this study, a control approach based on the model predictive control and Smith Predictor is proposed to compensate the effect of communication delay, and keep the stability of the Microgrid (MG) system. A cyber-physical model for the MG system is introduced to define and test the control and communication functions. The MG system consists of two distributed natural gas generators, an energy storage device, a PV system and a wind turbine with constant power. The Smith Predictor based delay compensator approach is applied to the defined MG based system. In addition, the impact of communication delay on MG ismore »simulated and the behavior of the system with and without compensator is compared. The obtained simulation results show that the proposed approach can significantly decrease the impact of communication latency on frequency deviation and the response of the MG system.« less