skip to main content

Title: Conditional Classification: A Solution for Computational Energy Reduction
Deep convolutional neural networks have shown high efficiency in computer visions and other applications. However, with the increase in the depth of the networks, the computational complexity is growing exponentially. In this paper, we propose a novel solution to reduce the computational complexity of convolutional neural network models used for many class image classification. Our proposed technique breaks the classification task into two steps: 1) coarse-grain classification, in which the input samples are classified among a set of hyper-classes, 2) fine-grain classification, in which the final labels are predicted among those hyper-classes detected at the first step. We illustrate that our proposed classifier can reach the level of accuracy reported by the best in class classification models with less computational complexity (Flop Count) by only activating parts of the model that are needed for the image classification.
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2146726 1718538
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
22nd International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED)
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
325 to 330
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Given earth imagery with spectral features on a terrain surface, this paper studies surface segmentation based on both explanatory features and surface topology. The problem is important in many spatial and spatiotemporal applications such as flood extent mapping in hydrology. The problem is uniquely challenging for several reasons: first, the size of earth imagery on a terrain surface is often much larger than the input of popular deep convolutional neural networks; second, there exists topological structure dependency between pixel classes on the surface, and such dependency can follow an unknown and non-linear distribution; third, there are often limited training labels. Existing methods for earth imagery segmentation often divide the imagery into patches and consider the elevation as an additional feature channel. These methods do not fully incorporate the spatial topological structural constraint within and across surface patches and thus often show poor results, especially when training labels are limited. Existing methods on semi-supervised and unsupervised learning for earth imagery often focus on learning representation without explicitly incorporating surface topology. In contrast, we propose a novel framework that explicitly models the topological skeleton of a terrain surface with a contour tree from computational topology, which is guided by the physical constraintmore »(e.g., water flow direction on terrains). Our framework consists of two neural networks: a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn spatial contextual features on a 2D image grid, and a graph neural network (GNN) to learn the statistical distribution of physics-guided spatial topological dependency on the contour tree. The two models are co-trained via variational EM. Evaluations on the real-world flood mapping datasets show that the proposed models outperform baseline methods in classification accuracy, especially when training labels are limited.« less
  2. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs), a class of deep learning models, have experienced recent success in modeling sensory cortices and retinal circuits through optimizing performance on machine learning tasks, otherwise known as task optimization. Previous research has shown task-optimized CNNs to be capable of providing explanations as to why the retina efficiently encodes natural stimuli and how certain retinal cell types are involved in efficient encoding. In our work, we sought to use task-optimized CNNs as a means of explaining computational mechanisms responsible for motion-selective retinal circuits. We designed a biologically constrained CNN and optimized its performance on a motion-classification task. We drew inspiration from psychophysics, deep learning, and systems neuroscience literature to develop a toolbox of methods to reverse engineer the computational mechanisms learned in our model. Through reverse engineering our model, we proposed a computational mechanism in which direction-selective ganglion cells and starburst amacrine cells, both experimentally observed retinal cell types, emerge in our model to discriminate among moving stimuli. This emergence suggests that direction-selective circuits in the retina are ecologically designed to robustly discriminate among moving stimuli. Our results and methods also provide a framework for how to build more interpretable deep learning models and how to understandmore »them.« less
  3. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) filter the input data using spatial convolution operators with compact stencils. Commonly, the convolution operators couple features from all channels, which leads to immense computational cost in the training of and prediction with CNNs. To improve the efficiency of CNNs, we introduce lean convolution operators that reduce the number of parameters and computational complexity, and can be used in a wide range of existing CNNs. Here, we exemplify their use in residual networks (ResNets), which have been very reliable for a few years now and analyzed intensively. In our experiments on three image classification problems, the proposed LeanResNet yields results that are comparable to other recently proposed reduced architectures using similar number of parameters.
  4. We investigate the ways in which a machine learning architecture known as Reservoir Computing learns concepts such as “similar” and “different” and other relationships between image pairs and generalizes these concepts to previously unseen classes of data. We present two Reservoir Computing architectures, which loosely resemble neural dynamics, and show that a Reservoir Computer (RC) trained to identify relationships between image pairs drawn from a subset of training classes generalizes the learned relationships to substantially different classes unseen during training. We demonstrate our results on the simple MNIST handwritten digit database as well as a database of depth maps of visual scenes in videos taken from a moving camera. We consider image pair relationships such as images from the same class; images from the same class with one image superposed with noise, rotated 90°, blurred, or scaled; images from different classes. We observe that the reservoir acts as a nonlinear filter projecting the input into a higher dimensional space in which the relationships are separable; i.e., the reservoir system state trajectories display different dynamical patterns that reflect the corresponding input pair relationships. Thus, as opposed to training in the entire high-dimensional reservoir space, the RC only needs to learns characteristicmore »features of these dynamical patterns, allowing it to perform well with very few training examples compared with conventional machine learning feed-forward techniques such as deep learning. In generalization tasks, we observe that RCs perform significantly better than state-of-the-art, feed-forward, pair-based architectures such as convolutional and deep Siamese Neural Networks (SNNs). We also show that RCs can not only generalize relationships, but also generalize combinations of relationships, providing robust and effective image pair classification. Our work helps bridge the gap between explainable machine learning with small datasets and biologically inspired analogy-based learning, pointing to new directions in the investigation of learning processes.« less
  5. Introduction: Vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) are a leading cause of morbidity and early mortality in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD). These crises are triggered by sickle red blood cell (sRBC) aggregation in blood vessels and are influenced by factors such as enhanced sRBC and white blood cell (WBC) adhesion to inflamed endothelium. Advances in microfluidic biomarker assays (i.e., SCD Biochip systems) have led to clinical studies of blood cell adhesion onto endothelial proteins, including, fibronectin, laminin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, functionalized in microchannels. These microfluidic assays allow mimicking the physiological aspects of human microvasculature and help characterize biomechanical properties of adhered sRBCs under flow. However, analysis of the microfluidic biomarker assay data has so far relied on manual cell counting and exhaustive visual morphological characterization of cells by trained personnel. Integrating deep learning algorithms with microscopic imaging of adhesion protein functionalized microfluidic channels can accelerate and standardize accurate classification of blood cells in microfluidic biomarker assays. Here we present a deep learning approach into a general-purpose analytical tool covering a wide range of conditions: channels functionalized with different proteins (laminin or P-selectin), with varying degrees of adhesion by both sRBCs and WBCs, and in both normoxic and hypoxic environments. Methods: Our neuralmore »networks were trained on a repository of manually labeled SCD Biochip microfluidic biomarker assay whole channel images. Each channel contained adhered cells pertaining to clinical whole blood under constant shear stress of 0.1 Pa, mimicking physiological levels in post-capillary venules. The machine learning (ML) framework consists of two phases: Phase I segments pixels belonging to blood cells adhered to the microfluidic channel surface, while Phase II associates pixel clusters with specific cell types (sRBCs or WBCs). Phase I is implemented through an ensemble of seven generative fully convolutional neural networks, and Phase II is an ensemble of five neural networks based on a Resnet50 backbone. Each pixel cluster is given a probability of belonging to one of three classes: adhered sRBC, adhered WBC, or non-adhered / other. Results and Discussion: We applied our trained ML framework to 107 novel whole channel images not used during training and compared the results against counts from human experts. As seen in Fig. 1A, there was excellent agreement in counts across all protein and cell types investigated: sRBCs adhered to laminin, sRBCs adhered to P-selectin, and WBCs adhered to P-selectin. Not only was the approach able to handle surfaces functionalized with different proteins, but it also performed well for high cell density images (up to 5000 cells per image) in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (Fig. 1B). The average uncertainty for the ML counts, obtained from accuracy metrics on the test dataset, was 3%. This uncertainty is a significant improvement on the 20% average uncertainty of the human counts, estimated from the variance in repeated manual analyses of the images. Moreover, manual classification of each image may take up to 2 hours, versus about 6 minutes per image for the ML analysis. Thus, ML provides greater consistency in the classification at a fraction of the processing time. To assess which features the network used to distinguish adhered cells, we generated class activation maps (Fig. 1C-E). These heat maps indicate the regions of focus for the algorithm in making each classification decision. Intriguingly, the highlighted features were similar to those used by human experts: the dimple in partially sickled RBCs, the sharp endpoints for highly sickled RBCs, and the uniform curvature of the WBCs. Overall the robust performance of the ML approach in our study sets the stage for generalizing it to other endothelial proteins and experimental conditions, a first step toward a universal microfluidic ML framework targeting blood disorders. Such a framework would not only be able to integrate advanced biophysical characterization into fast, point-of-care diagnostic devices, but also provide a standardized and reliable way of monitoring patients undergoing targeted therapies and curative interventions, including, stem cell and gene-based therapies for SCD. Disclosures Gurkan: Dx Now Inc.: Patents & Royalties; Xatek Inc.: Patents & Royalties; BioChip Labs: Patents & Royalties; Hemex Health, Inc.: Consultancy, Current Employment, Patents & Royalties, Research Funding.« less