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Title: Wild bees and natural enemies prefer similar flower species and respond to similar plant traits
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Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Basic and Applied Ecology
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
259 to 269
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract Convergent evolution is at the forefront of many form-function studies. There are many examples of multiple independent lineages evolving a similar morphology in response to similar functional demands, providing a framework for testing hypotheses of form-function evolution. However, there are numerous clades with underappreciated convergence, in which there is a perceived homogeneity in morphology. In these groups, it can be difficult to investigate causal relationships of form and function (e.g., diet influencing the evolution of jaw morphology) without the ability to disentangle phylogenetic signal from convergence. Leuciscids (Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae; formerly nested within Cyprinidae) are a species-rich clade of fishes that have diversified to occupy nearly every freshwater trophic niche, yet are considered to have relatively low morphological diversity relative to other large freshwater clades. Within the North American leuciscids, many genera contain at least one herbivore, insectivore, and larvaphage. We created 3D models from micro-computed tomography scans of 165 leuciscid species to measure functionally relevant traits within the pharyngeal jaws of these fishes. Using a published phylogeny, we tested these metrics for evolutionary integration, phylogenetic signal, and correlation with diet. Measurements of the pharyngeal jaws, muscle attachment areas, and teeth showed strong positive evolutionary correlation with each other andmore »negative evolutionary correlation with measurements of the inter-ceratobranchial ligament (ICB ligament). Using diet data from published literature, we found extensive dietary convergence within Leuciscidae. The most common transitions we found were between herbivorous and invertivorous taxa and between insectivore types (aquatic vs. terrestrial). We document a trade-off in which herbivorous leuciscids have large teeth, short ICB ligaments, and large muscle attachment areas, whereas insectivorous leuciscids showed the opposite pattern. Inverse patterns of morphological integration between the ICB ligament the rest of the pharyngeal jaw correspond this dietary trade-off, which indicates that coordinated evolution of morphological traits contributes to functional diversity in this clade. However, these patterns only emerge in the context of phylogeny, meaning that the pharyngeal jaws of North American leuciscids converge by similar means (structural changes in response to dietary demands), but not necessarily to similar ends (absolute phenotype).« less
  2. Abstract

    Dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) is commonly used to assess the dietary ecology of modern and fossil taxa. In carnivorans, teeth with different functions record dietary behavior differently. Here, we assess DMTA variability along the tooth row of an extant carnivorous marsupial—the Tasmanian devil, Sarcophilus harrisii—which has multiple carnassial-like molars that may function and record diet similarly. We compared the complexity (Asfc), anisotropy (epLsar), and textural fill volume (Tfv) of the lower second, third, and fourth molars of Tasmanian devils to test the hypothesis that teeth with similar forms yield similar functions. Although third molars do have significantly higher epLsar values than fourth molars, all other DMTA attributes are indistinguishable from one another. These data suggest that teeth with comparable morphologies in the same taxon have similar functions and largely record diet similarly. In addition, we compared fossil and modern specimens of S. harrisii from Tasmania to assess dietary behavior over time. These analyses indicate that foods with similar textures have been consumed since the late Quaternary.