skip to main content

Title: General Finite-Element Framework of the Virtual Fields Method in Nonlinear Elasticity
Abstract This paper presents a method to derive the virtual fields for identifying constitutive model parameters using the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). The VFM is an approach to identify unknown constitutive parameters using deformation fields measured across a given volume of interest. The general principle for solving identification problems with the VFM is first to derive parametric stress field, where the stress components at any point depend on the unknown constitutive parameters, across the volume of interest from the measured deformation fields. Applying the principle of virtual work to the parametric stress fields, one can write scalar equations of the unknown parameters and solve the obtained system of equations to deduce the values of unknown parameters. However, no rules have been proposed to select the virtual fields in identification problems related to nonlinear elasticity and there are multiple strategies possible that can yield different results. In this work, we propose a systematic, robust and automatic approach to reconstruct the systems of scalar equations with the VFM. This approach is well suited to finite-element implementation and can be applied to any problem provided that full-field deformation data are available across a volume of interest. We also successfully demonstrate the feasibility of more » the novel approach by multiple numerical examples. Potential applications of the proposed approach are numerous in biomedical engineering where imaging techniques are commonly used to observe soft tissues and where alterations of material properties are markers of diseased states. « less
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Elasticity
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Polycrystalline materials consist of grains (crystals) oriented at different angles resulting in a heterogeneous and anisotropic mechanical behavior at that micro-length scale. In this study, a novel method is proposed for the first time to determine the [Formula: see text] crystal orientations of grains in a [Formula: see text] domain, using solely [Formula: see text] deformation fields. The grain boundaries are assumed to be unknown and delineated from the reconstructed changes in the crystallographic orientation. Further, the constitutive equations that describe the mechanical behavior of the domain in [Formula: see text] under plane stress conditions are derived, assuming that the material is transversely isotropic in 3D. Finite element based algorithms are utilized to discretize the inverse problem. The in-house written inverse problem solver is coupled with Matlab-based optimization scripts to solve for the mechanical property distributions. The performance of this method is tested at different noise levels with synthetic displacements that were used as measured data. The reconstructions deteriorate as the noise level is increased. This work presents a first milestone in the verification of this novel technology with synthetic data.
  2. Abstract

    Estimating soil properties from the mechanical reaction to a displacement is a common strategy, used not only in in situ soil characterization (e.g., pressuremeter and dilatometer tests) but also by biological organisms (e.g., roots, earthworms, razor clams), which sense stresses to explore the subsurface. Still, the absence of analytical solutions to predict the stress and deformation fields around cavities subject to geostatic stress, has prevented the development of characterization methods that resemble the strategies adopted by nature. We use the finite element method (FEM) to model the displacement-controlled expansion of cavities under a wide range of stress conditions and soil properties. The radial stress distribution at the cavity wall during expansion is extracted. Then, methods are proposed to prepare, transform and use such stress distributions to back-calculate the far field stresses and the mechanical parameters of the material around the cavity (Mohr-Coulomb friction angle$$\phi $$ϕ, Young’s modulusE). Results show that: (i) The initial stress distribution around the cavity can be fitted to a sum of cosines to estimate the far field stresses; (ii) By encoding the stress distribution as intensity images, in addition to certain scalar parameters, convolutional neural networks can consistently and accurately back-calculate the friction angle andmore »Young’s modulus of the soil.

    « less
  3. In large-scale wireless sensor networks, sensor-processor elements (nodes) are densely deployed to monitor the environment; consequently, their observations form a random field that is highly correlated in space.We consider a fusion sensor-network architecture where, due to the bandwidth and energy constraints, the nodes transmit quantized data to a fusion center. The fusion center provides feedback by broadcasting summary information to the nodes. In addition to saving energy, this feedback ensures reliability and robustness to node and fusion-center failures. We assume that the sensor observations follow a linear-regression model with known spatial covariances between any two locations within a region of interest. We propose a Bayesian framework for adaptive quantization, fusion-center feedback, and estimation of the random field and its parameters. We also derive a simple suboptimal scheme for estimating the unknown parameters, apply our estimation approach to the no-feedback scenario, discuss field prediction at arbitrary locations within the region of interest, and present numerical examples demonstrating the performance of the proposed methods.
  4. Abstract

    The rapid advancement of functional data in various application fields has increased the demand for advanced statistical approaches that can incorporate complex structures and nonlinear associations. In this article, we propose a novel functional random forests (FunFor) approach to model the functional data response that is densely and regularly measured, as an extension of the landmark work of Breiman, who introduced traditional random forests for a univariate response. The FunFor approach is able to predict curve responses for new observations and selects important variables from a large set of scalar predictors. The FunFor approach inherits the efficiency of the traditional random forest approach in detecting complex relationships, including nonlinear and high-order interactions. Additionally, it is a non-parametric approach without the imposition of parametric and distributional assumptions. Eight simulation settings and one real-data analysis consistently demonstrate the excellent performance of the FunFor approach in various scenarios. In particular, FunFor successfully ranks the true predictors as the most important variables, while achieving the most robust variable sections and the smallest prediction errors when comparing it with three other relevant approaches. Although motivated by a biological leaf shape data analysis, the proposed FunFor approach has great potential to be widely applied inmore »various fields due to its minimal requirement on tuning parameters and its distribution-free and model-free nature. An R package named ’FunFor’, implementing the FunFor approach, is available at GitHub.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    Satellite precipitation products, as all quantitative estimates, come with some inherent degree of uncertainty. To associate a quantitative value of the uncertainty to each individual estimate, error modeling is necessary. Most of the error models proposed so far compute the uncertainty as a function of precipitation intensity only, and only at one specific spatiotemporal scale. We propose a spectral error model that accounts for the neighboring space–time dynamics of precipitation into the uncertainty quantification. Systematic distortions of the precipitation signal and random errors are characterized distinctively in every frequency–wavenumber band in the Fourier domain, to accurately characterize error across scales. The systematic distortions are represented as a deterministic space–time linear filtering term. The random errors are represented as a nonstationary additive noise. The spectral error model is applied to the IMERG multisatellite precipitation product, and its parameters are estimated empirically through a system identification approach using the GV-MRMS gauge–radar measurements as reference (“truth”) over the eastern United States. The filtering term is found to be essentially low-pass (attenuating the fine-scale variability). While traditional error models attribute most of the error variance to random errors, it is found here that the systematic filtering term explains 48% of the error variancemore »at the native resolution of IMERG. This fact confirms that, at high resolution, filtering effects in satellite precipitation products cannot be ignored, and that the error cannot be represented as a purely random additive or multiplicative term. An important consequence is that precipitation estimates derived from different sources shall not be expected to automatically have statistically independent errors.

    Significance Statement

    Satellite precipitation products are nowadays widely used for climate and environmental research, water management, risk analysis, and decision support at the local, regional, and global scales. For all these applications, knowledge about the accuracy of the products is critical for their usability. However, products are not systematically provided with a quantitative measure of the uncertainty associated with each individual estimate. Various parametric error models have been proposed for uncertainty quantification, mostly assuming that the uncertainty is only a function of the precipitation intensity at the pixel and time of interest. By projecting satellite precipitation fields and their retrieval errors into the Fourier frequency–wavenumber domain, we show that we can explicitly take into account the neighboring space–time multiscale dynamics of precipitation and compute a scale-dependent uncertainty.

    « less