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Title: Emergence of viscosity and dissipation via stochastic bonds
“Viscosity is the most ubiquitous dissipative mechanical behavior” (Maugin, 1999). Despite its ubiquity, even for those systems where the mechanisms causing viscous and other forms of dissipation are known there are only a few quantitative models that extract the macroscopic rheological response from these microscopic mechanisms. One such mechanism is the stochastic breaking and forming of bonds which is present in polymer networks with transient cross-links, strong inter-layer bonding between graphene sheets, and sliding dry friction. In this paper we utilize a simple yet flexible model to show analytically how stochastic bonds can induce an array of rheological behaviors at the macroscale. We find that varying the bond interactions induces a Maxwell-type macroscopic material behavior with Newtonian viscosity, shear thinning, shear thickening, or solid like friction when subjected to shear at constant rates. When bond rupture is independent of the force applied, Newtonian viscosity is the predominant behavior. When bond breaking is accelerated by the applied force, a shear thinning response becomes most prevalent. Further connections of the macroscopic response to the interaction potential and rates of bonding and unbonding are illustrated through phase diagrams and analysis of limiting cases. Finally, we apply this model to polymer networks and to more » experimental data on “solid bridges” in polydisperse granular media. We imagine possible applications to material design through engineering bonds with specific interactions to bring about a desired macroscopic behavior. « less
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Journal of the mechanics and physics of solids
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National Science Foundation
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