skip to main content

Title: A Low-Power Front-End with Compressive Sensing Circuit for Neural Signal Acquisition Designed in 180 nm CMOS Process
Multi-channel data acquisition of bio-signals is a promising technology that is being used in many fields these days. Compressed sensing (CS) is an innovative approach of signal processing that facilitates sub-Nyquist processing of bio-signals, such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). This strategy can be used to lower the data rate to realize ultra-low-power performance, As the count of recording channels increase, data volume is increased resulting in impermissible transmitting power. This paper presents the implementation of a CMOS-based front-end design with the CS in the standard 180 nm CMOS process. A novel pseudo-random sequence generator is proposed, which consists of two different types of D flip-flops that are used for obtaining a completely random sequence. The power consumed by the bio-signal amplifier block is 2.35 μW. The SAR-ADC block that is designed to digitize the amplified signal consumes 277 μW of power and the power consumption value of the pseudo-random bit sequence generator (PRBS) is 344.2μW. The sampling rate of PRBS block is 611.76 Kbps. We have considered collecting neural data from the 32 channels, and achieved an 8.5X compression rate. The low power consumption per channel confirms the importance of the proposed approach for multiple channel high-density more » neural interfaces. « less
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1943990
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10314080
Journal Name:
2020 IEEE 14th Dallas Circuits and Systems Conference (DCAS)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. With the expansion of sensor nodes to newer avenues of technologies, such as the Internet of things (IoT), internet of bodies (IoB), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality, the demand to support high-speed operations, such as audio and video, with a minimal increase in power consumption is gaining much traction. In this work, we focus on these nodes operating in audio-based AR (AAR) and explore the opportunity of supporting audio at a low power budget. For sensor nodes, communicating one bit of data usually consumes significantly higher power than the power associated with sensing and processing/computing one data bit. Compressing the number of communication bits at the expense of a few computation cycles considerably reduces the overall power consumption of the nodes. Audio codecs such as AAC and LDAC that currently perform compression and decompression of audio streams burn significant power and create a floor to the minimum power possible in these applications. Compressive sensing (CS), a powerful mathematical tool for compression, is often used in physiological signal sensing, such as EEG and ECG, and it can offer a promising low-power alternative to audio codecs. We introduce a new paradigm of using the CS-based approach to realize audio compression thatmore »can function as a new independent technique or augment the existing codecs for a higher level of compression. This work, CS-Audio, fabricated in TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology, presents the first CS-based compression, equipped with an ON-chip DWT sparsifier for non-sparse audio signals. The CS design, realized in a pipelined architecture, achieves high data rates and enables a wake-up implementation to bypass computation for insignificant input samples, reducing the power consumption of the hardware. The measurement results demonstrate a 3X-15X reduction in transmitted audio data without a perceivable degradation of audio quality, as indicated by the perceptual evaluation of audio quality mean opinion score (PEAQ MOS) >1.5. The hardware consumes 238 μW power at 0.65 V and 15 Mbps, which is (~20X-40X) lower than audio codecs.« less
  2. Obeid, Iyad Selesnick (Ed.)
    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a popular clinical monitoring tool used for diagnosing brain-related disorders such as epilepsy [1]. As monitoring EEGs in a critical-care setting is an expensive and tedious task, there is a great interest in developing real-time EEG monitoring tools to improve patient care quality and efficiency [2]. However, clinicians require automatic seizure detection tools that provide decisions with at least 75% sensitivity and less than 1 false alarm (FA) per 24 hours [3]. Some commercial tools recently claim to reach such performance levels, including the Olympic Brainz Monitor [4] and Persyst 14 [5]. In this abstract, we describe our efforts to transform a high-performance offline seizure detection system [3] into a low latency real-time or online seizure detection system. An overview of the system is shown in Figure 1. The main difference between an online versus offline system is that an online system should always be causal and has minimum latency which is often defined by domain experts. The offline system, shown in Figure 2, uses two phases of deep learning models with postprocessing [3]. The channel-based long short term memory (LSTM) model (Phase 1 or P1) processes linear frequency cepstral coefficients (LFCC) [6] features from each EEGmore »channel separately. We use the hypotheses generated by the P1 model and create additional features that carry information about the detected events and their confidence. The P2 model uses these additional features and the LFCC features to learn the temporal and spatial aspects of the EEG signals using a hybrid convolutional neural network (CNN) and LSTM model. Finally, Phase 3 aggregates the results from both P1 and P2 before applying a final postprocessing step. The online system implements Phase 1 by taking advantage of the Linux piping mechanism, multithreading techniques, and multi-core processors. To convert Phase 1 into an online system, we divide the system into five major modules: signal preprocessor, feature extractor, event decoder, postprocessor, and visualizer. The system reads 0.1-second frames from each EEG channel and sends them to the feature extractor and the visualizer. The feature extractor generates LFCC features in real time from the streaming EEG signal. Next, the system computes seizure and background probabilities using a channel-based LSTM model and applies a postprocessor to aggregate the detected events across channels. The system then displays the EEG signal and the decisions simultaneously using a visualization module. The online system uses C++, Python, TensorFlow, and PyQtGraph in its implementation. The online system accepts streamed EEG data sampled at 250 Hz as input. The system begins processing the EEG signal by applying a TCP montage [8]. Depending on the type of the montage, the EEG signal can have either 22 or 20 channels. To enable the online operation, we send 0.1-second (25 samples) length frames from each channel of the streamed EEG signal to the feature extractor and the visualizer. Feature extraction is performed sequentially on each channel. The signal preprocessor writes the sample frames into two streams to facilitate these modules. In the first stream, the feature extractor receives the signals using stdin. In parallel, as a second stream, the visualizer shares a user-defined file with the signal preprocessor. This user-defined file holds raw signal information as a buffer for the visualizer. The signal preprocessor writes into the file while the visualizer reads from it. Reading and writing into the same file poses a challenge. The visualizer can start reading while the signal preprocessor is writing into it. To resolve this issue, we utilize a file locking mechanism in the signal preprocessor and visualizer. Each of the processes temporarily locks the file, performs its operation, releases the lock, and tries to obtain the lock after a waiting period. The file locking mechanism ensures that only one process can access the file by prohibiting other processes from reading or writing while one process is modifying the file [9]. The feature extractor uses circular buffers to save 0.3 seconds or 75 samples from each channel for extracting 0.2-second or 50-sample long center-aligned windows. The module generates 8 absolute LFCC features where the zeroth cepstral coefficient is replaced by a temporal domain energy term. For extracting the rest of the features, three pipelines are used. The differential energy feature is calculated in a 0.9-second absolute feature window with a frame size of 0.1 seconds. The difference between the maximum and minimum temporal energy terms is calculated in this range. Then, the first derivative or the delta features are calculated using another 0.9-second window. Finally, the second derivative or delta-delta features are calculated using a 0.3-second window [6]. The differential energy for the delta-delta features is not included. In total, we extract 26 features from the raw sample windows which add 1.1 seconds of delay to the system. We used the Temple University Hospital Seizure Database (TUSZ) v1.2.1 for developing the online system [10]. The statistics for this dataset are shown in Table 1. A channel-based LSTM model was trained using the features derived from the train set using the online feature extractor module. A window-based normalization technique was applied to those features. In the offline model, we scale features by normalizing using the maximum absolute value of a channel [11] before applying a sliding window approach. Since the online system has access to a limited amount of data, we normalize based on the observed window. The model uses the feature vectors with a frame size of 1 second and a window size of 7 seconds. We evaluated the model using the offline P1 postprocessor to determine the efficacy of the delayed features and the window-based normalization technique. As shown by the results of experiments 1 and 4 in Table 2, these changes give us a comparable performance to the offline model. The online event decoder module utilizes this trained model for computing probabilities for the seizure and background classes. These posteriors are then postprocessed to remove spurious detections. The online postprocessor receives and saves 8 seconds of class posteriors in a buffer for further processing. It applies multiple heuristic filters (e.g., probability threshold) to make an overall decision by combining events across the channels. These filters evaluate the average confidence, the duration of a seizure, and the channels where the seizures were observed. The postprocessor delivers the label and confidence to the visualizer. The visualizer starts to display the signal as soon as it gets access to the signal file, as shown in Figure 1 using the “Signal File” and “Visualizer” blocks. Once the visualizer receives the label and confidence for the latest epoch from the postprocessor, it overlays the decision and color codes that epoch. The visualizer uses red for seizure with the label SEIZ and green for the background class with the label BCKG. Once the streaming finishes, the system saves three files: a signal file in which the sample frames are saved in the order they were streamed, a time segmented event (TSE) file with the overall decisions and confidences, and a hypotheses (HYP) file that saves the label and confidence for each epoch. The user can plot the signal and decisions using the signal and HYP files with only the visualizer by enabling appropriate options. For comparing the performance of different stages of development, we used the test set of TUSZ v1.2.1 database. It contains 1015 EEG records of varying duration. The any-overlap performance [12] of the overall system shown in Figure 2 is 40.29% sensitivity with 5.77 FAs per 24 hours. For comparison, the previous state-of-the-art model developed on this database performed at 30.71% sensitivity with 6.77 FAs per 24 hours [3]. The individual performances of the deep learning phases are as follows: Phase 1’s (P1) performance is 39.46% sensitivity and 11.62 FAs per 24 hours, and Phase 2 detects seizures with 41.16% sensitivity and 11.69 FAs per 24 hours. We trained an LSTM model with the delayed features and the window-based normalization technique for developing the online system. Using the offline decoder and postprocessor, the model performed at 36.23% sensitivity with 9.52 FAs per 24 hours. The trained model was then evaluated with the online modules. The current performance of the overall online system is 45.80% sensitivity with 28.14 FAs per 24 hours. Table 2 summarizes the performances of these systems. The performance of the online system deviates from the offline P1 model because the online postprocessor fails to combine the events as the seizure probability fluctuates during an event. The modules in the online system add a total of 11.1 seconds of delay for processing each second of the data, as shown in Figure 3. In practice, we also count the time for loading the model and starting the visualizer block. When we consider these facts, the system consumes 15 seconds to display the first hypothesis. The system detects seizure onsets with an average latency of 15 seconds. Implementing an automatic seizure detection model in real time is not trivial. We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: https://www.isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_pfi_tt/resources/videos/realtime_eeg_analysis/v2.5.1/video_2.5.1.mp4. The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES [1] A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. Contreras-Vidal, “Deep learning for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification tasks: a review,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, p. 031001, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab0ab5. [2] A. C. Bridi, T. Q. Louro, and R. C. L. Da Silva, “Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients,” Rev. Lat. Am. Enfermagem, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 1034, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-1169.3488.2513. [3] M. Golmohammadi, V. Shah, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic Seizure Detection from Scalp Electroencephalograms,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 233–274. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36844-9_8. [4] “CFM Olympic Brainz Monitor.” [Online]. Available: https://newborncare.natus.com/products-services/newborn-care-products/newborn-brain-injury/cfm-olympic-brainz-monitor. [Accessed: 17-Jul-2020]. [5] M. L. Scheuer, S. B. Wilson, A. Antony, G. Ghearing, A. Urban, and A. I. Bagic, “Seizure Detection: Interreader Agreement and Detection Algorithm Assessments Using a Large Dataset,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol., 2020. https://doi.org/10.1097/WNP.0000000000000709. [6] A. Harati, M. Golmohammadi, S. Lopez, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved EEG Event Classification Using Differential Energy,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium, 2015, pp. 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/SPMB.2015.7405421. [7] V. Shah, C. Campbell, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Improved Spatio-Temporal Modeling in Automated Seizure Detection using Channel-Dependent Posteriors,” Neurocomputing, 2021. [8] W. Tatum, A. Husain, S. Benbadis, and P. Kaplan, Handbook of EEG Interpretation. New York City, New York, USA: Demos Medical Publishing, 2007. [9] D. P. Bovet and C. Marco, Understanding the Linux Kernel, 3rd ed. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2005. https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/understanding-the-linux/0596005652/. [10] V. Shah et al., “The Temple University Hospital Seizure Detection Corpus,” Front. Neuroinform., vol. 12, pp. 1–6, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2018.00083. [11] F. Pedregosa et al., “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 12, pp. 2825–2830, 2011. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.5555/1953048.2078195. [12] J. Gotman, D. Flanagan, J. Zhang, and B. Rosenblatt, “Automatic seizure detection in the newborn: Methods and initial evaluation,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 356–362, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4694(97)00003-9.« less
  3. This paper presents a power-efficient complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) neural signal-recording read-out circuit for multichannel neuromodulation implants. The system includes a neural amplifier and a successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR-ADC) for recording and digitizing neural signal data to transmit to a remote receiver. The synthetic neural signal is generated using a LabVIEW myDAQ device and processed through a LabVIEW GUI. The read-out circuit is designed and fabricated in the standard 0.5 μμm CMOS process. The proposed amplifier uses a fully differential two-stage topology with a reconfigurable capacitive-resistive feedback network. The amplifier achieves 49.26 dB and 60.53 dB gain within the frequency bandwidth of 0.57–301 Hz and 0.27–12.9 kHz to record the local field potentials (LFPs) and the action potentials (APs), respectively. The amplifier maintains a noise–power tradeoff by reducing the noise efficiency factor (NEF) to 2.53. The capacitors are manually laid out using the common-centroid placement technique, which increases the linearity of the ADC. The SAR-ADC achieves a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 45.8 dB, with a resolution of 8 bits. The ADC exhibits an effective number of bits of 7.32 at a low sampling rate of 10 ksamples/s. The total power consumption of the chip is 26.02 μμW, which makesmore »it highly suitable for a multi-channel neural signal recording system.« less
  4. Underwater networks of wireless sensors deployed along the coast or in the deep water are the most promising solution for the development of underwater monitoring, exploration and surveillance applications. A key feature of underwater networks that can significantly enhance current monitoring applications is the ability to accommodate real-time video information on an underwater communication link. In fact, while today monitoring relies on the exchange of simple discrete information, e.g., water temperature, and particle concentration, among others, by introducing real-time streaming capability of non-static images between wireless underwater nodes one can completely revolutionize the whole underwater monitoring scenario. To achieve this goal, underwater links are required to support a sufficiently high data rate, compatible with the streaming rates of the transmitted video sequence. Unfortunately, the intrinsic characteristic of the underwater propagation medium has made this objective extremely challenging. In this paper, we present the first physical layer transmission scheme for short-range and high-data rate ultrasonic underwater communications. The proposed solution, which we will refer to as Underwater UltraSonar (U2S), is based on the idea of transmitting short information-bearing carrierless ultrasonic signals, e.g., pulses, following a pseudo-random adaptive time-hopping pattern with a superimposed rate-adaptive Reed-Solomon forward error correction (FEC) channel coding. Wemore »also present the design of the first prototype of a software-defined underwater ultrasonic transceiver that implements U2S PHY transmission scheme through which we evaluate the U2S performance in real-scenario underwater experiments at the PHY layer, i.e., Bit Error Rate (BER) extensively, and at the application layer, i.e., structural similarity (SSIM) index. Results show that U2S links can support point-to-point data rate up to 1.38 Mbps and that by leveraging the flexibility of the adaptive time-hopping and adaptive channel coding techniques, one can trade between link throughput and energy consumption, still satisfying application layer requirements.« less
  5. Abstract Objective . Brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore motor function but are currently limited by electrode count and long-term recording stability. These challenges may be solved through the use of free-floating ‘motes’ which wirelessly transmit recorded neural signals, if power consumption can be kept within safe levels when scaling to thousands of motes. Here, we evaluated a pulse-interval modulation (PIM) communication scheme for infrared (IR)-based motes that aims to reduce the wireless data rate and system power consumption. Approach . To test PIM’s ability to efficiently communicate neural information, we simulated the communication scheme in a real-time closed-loop BMI with non-human primates. Additionally, we performed circuit simulations of an IR-based 1000-mote system to calculate communication accuracy and total power consumption. Main results . We found that PIM at 1 kb/s per channel maintained strong correlations with true firing rate and matched online BMI performance of a traditional wired system. Closed-loop BMI tests suggest that lags as small as 30 ms can have significant performance effects. Finally, unlike other IR communication schemes, PIM is feasible in terms of power, and neural data can accurately be recovered on a receiver using 3 mW for 1000 channels. Significance. These resultsmore »suggest that PIM-based communication could significantly reduce power usage of wireless motes to enable higher channel-counts for high-performance BMIs.« less