skip to main content

Title: Joint Optimization of Autonomous Electric Vehicle Fleet Operations and Charging Station Siting
Charging infrastructure is the coupling link between power and transportation networks, thus determining charging station siting is necessary for planning of power and transportation systems. While previous works have either optimized for charging station siting given historic travel behavior, or optimized fleet routing and charging given an assumed placement of the stations, this paper introduces a linear program that optimizes for station siting and macroscopic fleet operations in a joint fashion. Given an electricity retail rate and a set of travel demand requests, the optimization minimizes total cost for an autonomous EV fleet comprising of travel costs, station procurement costs, fleet procurement costs, and electricity costs, including demand charges. Specifically, the optimization returns the number of charging plugs for each charging rate (e.g., Level 2, DC fast charging) at each candidate location, as well as the optimal routing and charging of the fleet. From a case-study of an electric vehicle fleet operating in San Francisco, our results show that, albeit with range limitations, small EVs with low procurement costs and high energy efficiencies are the most cost-effective in terms of total ownership costs. Furthermore, the optimal siting of charging stations is more spatially distributed than the current siting of stations, consisting mainly of high-power Level 2 AC stations (16.8 kW) with a small share of DC fast charging stations and no standard 7.7kW Level 2 stations. Optimal siting reduces the total costs, empty vehicle travel, and peak charging load by up to 10%.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
2021 IEEE International Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC)
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The increasing demand for electric vehicles, due to advantages such as higher energy efficiency, lower fuel costs, and less vehicle maintenance, is expected to drive the need for electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Due to their reduced size and weight, high power and scalable compact solid state transformers (SST) are growing in popularity. This study presents the total loss analysis and control design for a direct grid connected single-phase SST for a fast charging station. A control strategy to achieve robust current control, DC voltage and power balancing, and power loss minimization (PLM) is implemented for this system. Detailed analyses and simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink are given to prove the effectiveness of the proposed control techniques. 
    more » « less
  2. Advances in information technologies and vehicle automation have birthed new transportation services, including shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs). Shared autonomous vehicles are on-demand self-driving taxis, with flexible routes and schedules, able to replace personal vehicles for many trips in the near future. The siting and density of pick-up and drop-off (PUDO) points for SAVs, much like bus stops, can be key in planning SAV fleet operations, since PUDOs impact SAV demand, route choices, passenger wait times, and network congestion. Unlike traditional human-driven taxis and ride-hailing vehicles like Lyft and Uber, SAVs are unlikely to engage in quasi-legal procedures, like double parking or fire hydrant pick-ups. In congested settings, like central business districts (CBD) or airport curbs, SAVs and others will not be allowed to pick up and drop off passengers wherever they like. This paper uses an agent-based simulation to model the impact of different PUDO locations and densities in the Austin, Texas CBD, where land values are highest and curb spaces are coveted. In this paper 18 scenarios were tested, varying PUDO density, fleet size and fare price. The results show that for a given fare price and fleet size, PUDO spacing (e.g., one block vs. three blocks) has significant impact on ridership, vehicle-miles travelled, vehicle occupancy, and revenue. A good fleet size to serve the region’s 80 core square miles is 4000 SAVs, charging a $1 fare per mile of travel distance, and with PUDOs spaced three blocks of distance apart from each other in the CBD.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have emerged as a promising alternative to traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles due to benefits in improved fuel economy, lower operating cost, and reduced emission. BEVs use electric motors rather than fossil fuels for propulsion and typically store electric energy in lithium-ion cells. With rising concerns over fossil fuel depletion and the impact of ICE vehicles on the climate, electric mobility is widely considered as the future of sustainable transportation. BEVs promise to drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions as a result of the transportation sector. However, mass adoption of BEVs faces major barriers due to consumer worries over several important battery-related issues, such as limited range, long charging time, lack of charging stations, and high initial cost. Existing solutions to overcome these barriers, such as building more charging stations, increasing battery capacity, and stationary vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) charging, often suffer from prohibitive investment costs, incompatibility to existing BEVs, or long travel delays. In this paper, we propose P eer-to- P eer C ar C harging (P2C2), a scalable approach for charging BEVs that alleviates the need for elaborate charging infrastructure. The central idea is to enable BEVs to share charge among each other while in motion through coordination with a cloud-based control system. To re-vitalize a BEV fleet, which is continuously in motion, we introduce Mobile Charging Stations (MoCS), which are high-battery-capacity vehicles used to replenish the overall charge in a vehicle network. Unlike existing V2V charging solutions, the charge sharing in P2C2 takes place while the BEVs are in-motion, which aims at minimizing travel time loss. To reduce BEV-to-BEV contact time without increasing manufacturing costs, we propose to use multiple batteries of varying sizes and charge transfer rates. The faster but smaller batteries are used for charge transfer between vehicles, while the slower but larger ones are used for prolonged charge storage. We have designed the overall P2C2 framework and formalized the decision-making process of the cloud-based control system. We have evaluated the effectiveness of P2C2 using a well-characterized simulation platform and observed dramatic improvement in BEV mobility. Additionally, through statistical analysis, we show that a significant reduction in carbon emission is also possible if MoCS can be powered by renewable energy sources. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    High transportation costs make energy and food expensive in remote communities worldwide, especially in high-latitude Arctic climates. Past attempts to grow food indoors in these remote areas have proven uneconomical due to the need for expensive imported diesel for heating and electricity. This study aims to determine whether solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity can be used affordably to power container farms integrated with a remote Arctic community microgrid. A mixed-integer linear optimization model (FEWMORE: Food–Energy–Water Microgrid Optimization with Renewable Energy) has been developed to minimize the capital and maintenance costs of installing solar photovoltaics (PV) plus electricity storage and the operational costs of purchasing electricity from the community microgrid to power a container farm. FEWMORE expands upon previous models by simulating demand-side management of container farm loads. Its results are compared with those of another model (HOMER) for a test case. FEWMORE determined that 17 kW of solar PV was optimal to power the farm loads, resulting in a total annual cost decline of ~14% compared with a container farm currently operating in the Yukon. Managing specific loads appropriately can reduce total costs by ~18%. Thus, even in an Arctic climate, where the solar PV system supplies only ~7% of total load during the winter and ~25% of the load during the entire year, investing in solar PV reduces costs. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The seamless adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in the United States necessitates the development of extensive and effective charging infrastructure. Various charging systems have been proposed, including Direct Current Fast Charging, Battery Swapping, and Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer. While many studies have evaluated the charging costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of EVs, a comprehensive analysis comparing these systems and their implications across vehicle categories remains unexplored. This study compares the total cost of ownership (TCO) and GHG-intensity of EVs using these charging systems. Based on nationwide infrastructure deployment simulations, the change to TCO from adopting EVs varies by scenario, vehicle category, and location, with local fuel prices, electricity prices, and traffic volumes dramatically impacting results. Further, EV GHG-intensity depends on local electricity mixes and infrastructure utilizations. This research highlights the responsiveness of EV benefits resulting from technology advancements, deployment decisions, and policymaking.

    more » « less