Noninterference is a popular semantic security condition because it offers strong end-to-end guarantees, it is inherently compositional, and it can be enforced using a simple security type system. Unfortunately, it is too restrictive for real systems. Mechanisms for downgrading information are needed to capture real-world security requirements, but downgrading eliminates the strong compositional security guarantees of noninterference. We introduce _nonmalleable information flow_, a new formal security condition that generalizes noninterference to permit controlled downgrading of both confidentiality and integrity. While previous work on robust declassification prevents adversaries from exploiting the downgrading of confidentiality, our key insight is _transparent endorsement_, a mechanism for downgrading integrity while defending against adversarial exploitation. Robust declassification appeared to break the duality of confidentiality and integrity by making confidentiality depend on integrity, but transparent endorsement makes integrity depend on confidentiality, restoring this duality. We show how to extend a security-typed programming language with transparent endorsement and prove that this static type system enforces nonmalleable information flow, a new security property that subsumes robust declassification and transparent endorsement. Finally, we describe an implementation of this type system in the context of Flame, a flow-limited authorization plugin for the Glasgow Haskell Compiler.
This content will become publicly available on January 1, 2023
Hamraz: Resilient Partitioning and Replication
Inter-organizational systems where subsystems with partial trust need to cooperate are common in healthcare, finance and military. In the face of malicious Byzantine attacks, the ultimate goal is to assure end-to-end policies for the three aspects of trustworthiness: confidentiality, integrity and availability. In contrast to confidentiality and integrity, provision and validation of availability has been often sidestepped. This paper guarantees end-to-end policies simultaneously for all the three aspects of trustworthiness. It presents a security-typed object-based language, a partitioning transformation, an operational semantics, and an information flow type inference system for partitioned and replicated classes. The type system provably guarantees that well-typed methods enjoy noninterference for the three properties, and that their types quantify their resilience to Byzantine attacks. Given a class and the specification of its end-to-end policies, the Hamraz tool applies type inference to automatically place and replicate the fields and methods of the class on Byzantine quorum systems, and synthesize trustworthy-by-construction distributed systems. The experiments show the resiliency of the resulting systems; they can gracefully tolerate attacks that are as strong as the specified policies.
- Award ID(s):
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- S&P'22 (IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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