The Marine Gastropod Crepidula fornicata Remains Resilient to Ocean Acidification Across Two Life History Stages
Rising atmospheric CO 2 reduces seawater pH causing ocean acidification (OA). Understanding how resilient marine organisms respond to OA may help predict how community dynamics will shift as CO 2 continues rising. The common slipper shell snail Crepidula fornicata is a marine gastropod native to eastern North America that has been a successful invader along the western European coastline and elsewhere. It has also been previously shown to be resilient to global change stressors. To examine the mechanisms underlying C. fornicata’s resilience to OA, we conducted two controlled laboratory experiments. First, we examined several phenotypes and genome-wide gene expression of C. fornicata in response to pH treatments (7.5, 7.6, and 8.0) throughout the larval stage and then tested how conditions experienced as larvae influenced juvenile stages (i.e., carry-over effects). Second, we examined genome-wide gene expression patterns of C. fornicata larvae in response to acute (4, 10, 24, and 48 h) pH treatment (7.5 and 8.0). Both C. fornicata larvae and juveniles exhibited resilience to OA and their gene expression responses highlight the role of transcriptome plasticity in this resilience. Larvae did not exhibit reduced growth under OA until they were at least 8 days old. These phenotypic effects were preceded more »
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NSF-PAR ID:
10322480
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Physiology
Volume:
12
ISSN:
1664-042X
5. Ocean acidification, the ongoing decline of surface ocean pH and [CO${}_{3}^{2-}$] due to absorption of surplus atmospheric CO 2 , has far-reaching consequences for marine biota, especially calcifiers. Among these are teleost fishes, which internally calcify otoliths, critical elements of the inner ear and vestibular system. There is evidence in the literature that ocean acidification increases otolith size and alters shape, perhaps impacting otic mechanics and thus sensory perception. Here, larval Clark’s anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830), were reared in various seawater pCO 2 /pH treatments analogous to future ocean scenarios. At the onset of metamorphosis, all otoliths were removed from each individual fish and analyzed for treatment effects on morphometrics including area, perimeter, and circularity; scanning electron microscopy was used to screen for evidence of treatment effects on lateral development, surface roughness, and vaterite replacement. The results corroborate those of other experiments with other taxa that observed otolith growth with elevated pCO 2 , and provide evidence that lateral development and surface roughness increased as well. Both sagittae exhibited increasing area, perimeter, lateral development, and roughness; left lapilli exhibited increasing area and perimeter while right lapilli exhibited increasing lateral development and roughness; and left asterisci exhibited increasing perimeter, roughness,more »