Neurons are remarkably polarized structures: dendrites spread and branch to receive synaptic inputs while a single axon extends and transmits action potentials (APs) to downstream targets. Neuronal polarity is maintained by the axon initial segment (AIS), a region between the soma and axon proper that is also the site of action potential (AP) generation. This polarization between dendrites and axons extends to inhibitory neurotransmission. In adulthood, the neurotransmitter GABA hyperpolarizes dendrites but instead depolarizes axons. These differences in function collide at the AIS. Multiple studies have shown that GABAergic signaling in this region can share properties of either the mature axon or mature dendrite, and that these properties evolve over a protracted period encompassing periadolescent development. Here, we explored how developmental changes in GABAergic signaling affect AP initiation. We show that GABA at the axon initial segment inhibits action potential initiation in layer (L)2/3 pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortex from mice of either sex across GABA reversal potentials observed in periadolescence. These actions occur largely through current shunts generated by GABAAreceptors and changes in voltage-gated channel properties that affected the number of channels that could be recruited for AP electrogenesis. These results suggest that GABAergic neurons targeting the axon initial segment provide an inhibitory “veto” across the range of GABA polarity observed in normal adolescent development, regardless of GABAergic synapse reversal potential.
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Molecular Systems Design & Engineering
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 260 to 272
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Significance StatementGABA receptors are a major class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Typically, GABA receptors inhibit neurons by allowing influx of negatively charged chloride ions into the cell. However, there are cases where local chloride concentrations promote chloride efflux through GABA receptors. Such conditions exist early in development in neocortical pyramidal cell axon initial segments (AISs), where action potentials (APs) initiate. Here, we examined how chloride efflux in early development interacts with mechanisms that support action potential initiation. We find that this efflux, despite moving membrane potential closer to action potential threshold, is nevertheless inhibitory. Thus, GABA at the axon initial segment is likely to be inhibitory for action potential initiation independent of whether chloride flows out or into neurons via these receptors.
Electrospray deposition (ESD) has shown great promise for manufacturing micro- and nanostructured coatings at scale on versatile substrates with complex geometries. ESD exhibits a broad spectrum of morphologies depending upon the properties of spray fluids. Among them are nanowire forests or foams obtained via the in-air gelation of electrospray droplets formed from methylcellulose (MC) solutions. In this study, we explored MC ESD loaded with nanoparticles of various shapes and uncovered the effects of particle fillers on morphology evolution using coarse-grained simulations and physical experiments. Utilizing electrostatic dissipative particle dynamics, we modeled the electrohydrodynamic deformation of particle-laden MC droplets undergoing in-flight evaporation. The simulations quantitatively predict the suppression of droplet deformation as the size or concentration of spherical nanoparticles increases. While small particles can be readily encapsulated into the nanowire body, large particles can arrest nanowire formation. The model was extended to nanoparticles with complex topologies, showing MC nanowires emerging from particle edges and vertices due to curvature-enhanced electric stress. In all cases, strong agreements were found between simulation and experimental results. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the coarse-grained model in predicting the morphology evolution of electrosprayed droplets and lay the groundwork for employing MC nanowires for developing nanostructured composites.more » « less
Ever-increasing demands for energy, particularly being environmentally friendly have promoted the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy.1Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), arguably the most well-studied energy storage system, have dominated the energy market since their advent in the 1990s.2However, challenging issues regarding safety, supply of lithium, and high price of lithium resources limit the further advancement of LIBs for large-scale energy storage applications.3Therefore, attention is being concentrated on an alternative electrochemical energy storage device that features high safety, low cost, and long cycle life. Rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) is considered one of the most promising alternative energy storage systems due to the high theoretical energy and power densities where the multiple electrons (Zn2+) . In addition, aqueous ZIBs are safer due to non-flammable electrolyte (e.g., typically aqueous solution) and can be manufactured since they can be assembled in ambient air conditions.4As an essential component in aqueous Zn-based batteries, the Zn metal anode generally suffers from the growth of dendrites, which would affect battery performance in several ways. Second, the led by the loose structure of Zn dendrite may reduce the coulombic efficiency and shorten the battery lifespan.5
Several approaches were suggested to improve the electrochemical stability of ZIBs, such as implementing an interfacial buffer layer that separates the active Zn from the bulk electrolyte.6However, the and thick thickness of the conventional Zn metal foils remain a critical challenge in this field, which may diminish the energy density of the battery drastically. According to a theretical calculation, the thickness of a Zn metal anode with an areal capacity of 1 mAh cm-2is about 1.7 μm. However, existing extrusion-based fabrication technologies are not capable of downscaling the thickness Zn metal foils below 20 μm.
Herein, we demonstrate a thickness controllable coating approach to fabricate an ultrathin Zn metal anode as well as a thin dielectric oxide separator. First, a 1.7 μm Zn layer was uniformly thermally evaporated onto a Cu foil. Then, Al2O3, the separator was deposited through sputtering on the Zn layer to a thickness of 10 nm. The inert and high hardness Al2O3layer is expected to lower the polarization and restrain the growth of Zn dendrites. Atomic force microscopy was employed to evaluate the roughness of the surface of the deposited Zn and Al2O3/Zn anode structures. Long-term cycling stability was gauged under the symmetrical cells at 0.5 mA cm-2for 1 mAh cm-2. Then the fabricated Zn anode was paired with MnO2as a full cell for further electrochemical performance testing. To investigate the evolution of the interface between the Zn anode and the electrolyte, a home-developed in-situ optical observation battery cage was employed to record and compare the process of Zn deposition on the anodes of the Al2O3/Zn (demonstrated in this study) and the procured thick Zn anode. The surface morphology of the two Zn anodes after circulation was characterized and compared through scanning electron microscopy. The tunable ultrathin Zn metal anode with enhanced anode stability provides a pathway for future high-energy-density Zn-ion batteries.
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J Am Chem Soc 2013, 135(4), 1167-76.
Li, C.; Xie, X.; Liang, S.; Zhou, J., Issues and Future Perspective on Zinc Metal Anode for Rechargeable Aqueous Zinc‐ion Batteries.
Energy & Environmental Materials 2020, 3(2), 146-159.
Jia, H.; Wang, Z.; Tawiah, B.; Wang, Y.; Chan, C.-Y.; Fei, B.; Pan, F., Recent advances in zinc anodes for high-performance aqueous Zn-ion batteries.
Nano Energy 2020, 70.
Yang, J.; Yin, B.; Sun, Y.; Pan, H.; Sun, W.; Jia, B.; Zhang, S.; Ma, T., Zinc Anode for Mild Aqueous Zinc-Ion Batteries: Challenges, Strategies, and Perspectives.
Nanomicro Lett 2022, 14(1), 42.
Yang, Q.; Li, Q.; Liu, Z.; Wang, D.; Guo, Y.; Li, X.; Tang, Y.; Li, H.; Dong, B.; Zhi, C., Dendrites in Zn-Based Batteries.
Adv Mater 2020, 32(48), e2001854.
This work was partially supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Award No. ECCS-1931088. S.L. and H.W.S. acknowledge the support from the Improvement of Measurement Standards and Technology for Mechanical Metrology (Grant No. 22011044) by KRISS.
Lithium metal as an anode has been widely accepted due to its higher negative electrochemical potential and theoretical capacity. Nevertheless, the existing safety and cyclability issues limit lithium metal anodes from practical use in high-energy density batteries. Repeated Li deposition and dissolution processes upon cycling lead to the formation of dendrites at the interface which results in reduced Li availability for electrochemical reactions, disruption in Li transport through the interface and increased safety concerns due to short circuiting. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy using Ionic Liquid Crystals (ILCs) as the electrolyte cum pseudo-separator to suppress dendrite growth with their anisotropic properties controlling Li-ion mass transport. A thermotropic ILC with two-dimensional Li-ion conducting pathways was synthesized and characterized. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses elucidate that the ILC formed with a smectic A phase, which can be utilized for wide temperature window operation. The results of electrochemical studies corroborate the efficacy of ILC electrolytes in mitigating dendrite formation even after 850 hours and it is further substantiated by numerical simulation and the mechanism involved in dendritic suppression was deduced.more » « less
Metallic zinc (Zn) has been considered one of the most promising anode materials for next-generation aqueous Zn batteries due to its low redox potential and high storage capacity. However, excessive dendrite formation in Zn metal, corrosion, the evolution of hydrogen gas during the cycling process, and the poor Zn-ions (Zn2+) transport from the electrolyte to the electrode limits its practical application. One of the most effective strategies to suppress Zn dendrite growth and promote Zn2+ transport is to introduce suitable protective layers between the Zn metal electrode and the electrolyte. Herein, we mathematically simulated the dynamic interactions between the Zn deposition on the anode and the resulting displacement of a protective layer that covers the anode, the latter of which can simultaneously inhibit Zn dendrite growth and enhance the Zn2+ transport through the interface between Zn anode and the protective layer. Our simulation results indicate that a protective layer of high Zn2+ diffusivity not only improves the deposition rate of the Zn metal but also prevents the dendrite growth by homogenizing the Zn2+ concentration at the anode surface. In addition, it is revealed that the anisotropic Zn2+ diffusivity in the protective layer influences the 2D diffusion of Zn2+. Higher Zn2+ diffusivity perpendicular to the Zn metal surface inhibits the dendrite growth, while higher diffusivity parallel to the Zn metal surface promotes dendrite growth. Our work thus provides a fundamental understanding and a design principle of controlling anisotropic Zn2+ diffusion in the protective layer for better suppression of dendrite growth in Zn metal batteries.more » « less