Molecules of the type XYT = Ch (T = C, Si, Ge; Ch = S, Se; X,Y = H, CH3, Cl, Br, I) contain a σ-hole along the T = Ch bond extension. This hole can engage with the N lone pair of NCH and NCCH3 so as to form a chalcogen bond. In the case of T = C, these bonds are rather weak, less than 3 kcal/mol, and are slightly weakened in acetone or water. They owe their stability to attractive electrostatic energy, supplemented by dispersion, and a much smaller polarization term. Immersion in solvent reverses the electrostatic interaction to repulsive, while amplifying the polarization energy. The σ-holes are smaller for T = Si and Ge, even negative in many cases. These Lewis acids can nonetheless engage in a weak chalcogen bond. This bond owes its stability to dispersion in the gas phase, but it is polarization that dominates in solution.
Noncovalent bond between tetrel π-hole and hydride
The π-hole above the plane of the X 2 T′Y molecule (T′ = Si, Ge, Sn; X = F, Cl, H; Y = O, S) was allowed to interact with the TH hydride of TH(CH 3 ) 3 (T = Si, Ge, Sn). The resulting TH⋯T′ tetrel bond is quite strong, with interaction energies exceeding 30 kcal mol −1 . F 2 T′O engages in the strongest such bonds, as compared to F 2 T′S, Cl 2 T′O, or Cl 2 T′S. The bond weakens as T′ grows larger as in Si > Ge > Sn, despite the opposite trend in the depth of the π-hole. The reverse pattern of stronger tetrel bond with larger T is observed for the Lewis base TH(CH 3 ) 3 , even though the minimum in the electrostatic potential around the H is nearly independent of T. The TH⋯T′ arrangement is nonlinear which can be understood on the basis of the positions of the extrema in the molecular electrostatic potentials of the monomers. The tetrel bond is weakened when H 2 O forms an O⋯T′ tetrel bond with the second π-hole of F 2 T′O, and strengthened if H 2 O participates in an more »
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