skip to main content

Title: Inspecting the Cepheid parallax of pulsation using Gaia EDR3 parallaxes: Projection factor and period-luminosity and period-radius relations
Context. As primary anchors of the distance scale, Cepheid stars play a crucial role in our understanding of the distance scale of the Universe because of their period-luminosity relation. Determining precise and consistent parameters (radius, temperature, color excess, and projection factor) of Cepheid pulsating stars is therefore very important. Aims. With the high-precision parallaxes delivered by the early third Gaia data release (EDR3), we aim to derive various parameters of Cepheid stars in order to calibrate the period-luminosity and period-radius relations and to investigate the relation of period to p -factor. Methods. We applied an implementation of the parallax-of-pulsation method through the algorithm called spectro-photo-interferometry of pulsating stars (SPIPS), which combines all types of available data for a variable star (multiband and multicolor photometry, radial velocity, effective temperature, and interferometry measurements) in a global modeling of its pulsation. Results. We present the SPIPS modeling of a sample of 63 Galactic Cepheids. Adopting Gaia EDR3 parallaxes as an input associated with the best available dataset, we derive consistent values of parameters for these stars such as the radius, multiband apparent magnitudes, effective temperatures, color excesses, period changes, Fourier parameters, and the projection factor. Conclusions. Using the best set of data and the most precise distances for Milky Way Cepheids, we derive new calibrations of the period-luminosity and period-radius relations: M K S = −5.529 ±0.015   −  3.141 ±0.050 (log P   −  0.9) and log R = 1.763 ±0.003   +  0.653 ±0.012 (log P   −  0.9). After investigating the dependences of the projection factor on the parameters of the stars, we find a high dispersion of its values and no evidence of its correlation with the period or with any other parameters such as radial velocity, temperature, or metallicity. Statistically, the p -factor has an average value of p  = 1.26 ± 0.07, but with an unsatisfactory agreement ( σ  = 0.15). In absence of any clear correlation between the p -factor and other quantities, the best agreement is obtained under the assumption that the p -factor can take any value in a band with a width of 0.15. This result highlights the need for a further examination of the physics behind the p -factor.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this

    We present the results of the analysis of Type II and anomalous Cepheids using the data from the Kepler K2 mission. The precise light curves of these pulsating variable stars are the key to study the details of their pulsation, such as the period-doubling effect or the presence of additional modes. We applied the Automated Extended Aperture Photometry (autoEAP) to obtain the light curves of the targeted variable stars which were observed. The light curves were Fourier analysed. We investigated 12 stars observed by the K2 mission, seven Type II, and five anomalous Cepheids. Among the Type II Cepheids, EPIC 210622262 shows period-doubling, and four stars have modulation present in their light curves which are different from the period-doubling effect. We calculated the high-order Fourier parameters for the short-period Cepheids. We also determined physical parameters by fitting model atmospheres to the spectral energy distributions. The determined distances using the parallaxes measured by the Gaia space telescope have limited precision below 16 mag for these types of pulsating stars, regardless if the inverse method is used or the statistical method to calculate the distances. The BaSTI evolutionary models were compared to the luminosities and effective temperatures. Most of the Type II Cepheids are modelled with low metallicity models, but for a few of them solar-like metallicity ([Fe/H] = 0.06) model is required. The anomalous Cepheids are compared to low-metallicity single stellar models. We do not see signs of binarity among our sample stars.

    more » « less

    The period-change rate (PCR) of pulsating variable stars is a useful probe of changes in their interior structure, and thus of their evolutionary stages. So far, the PCRs of classical Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been explored in a limited sample of the total population of these variables. Here, we use a template-based method to build observed-minus-computed (O − C) period diagrams, from which we can derive PCRs for these stars by taking advantage of the long time baseline afforded by the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard light curves, combined with additional data from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, the MAssive Compact Halo Object project, Gaia’s Data Release 2, and in some cases the All-Sky Automated Survey. From an initial sample of 2315 sources, our method provides an unprecedented sample of 1303 LMC classical Cepheids with accurate PCRs, the largest for any single galaxy, including the Milky Way. The derived PCRs are largely compatible with theoretically expected values, as computed by our team using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics code, as well as with similar previous computations available in the literature. Additionally, five long-period ($P\,\gt\, 50\, \rm {d}$) sources display a cyclic behaviour in their O − C diagrams, which is clearly incompatible with evolutionary changes. Finally, on the basis of their large positive PCR values, two first-crossing Cepheid candidates are identified.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present new empirical infrared period–luminosity–metallicity (PLZ) and period–Wesenheit–metallicity (PWZ) relations for RR Lyae based on the latest Gaia Early Data Release 3 (EDR3) parallaxes. The relations are provided in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1 and W2 bands, as well as in the W(W1,V− W1) and W(W2,V− W2) Wesenheit magnitudes. The relations are calibrated using a very large sample of Galactic halo field RR Lyrae stars with homogeneous spectroscopic [Fe/H] abundances (over 1000 stars in the W1 band), covering a broad range of metallicities (−2.5 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ 0.0). We test the performance of our PLZ and PWZ relations by determining the distance moduli of both galactic and extragalactic stellar associations: the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the Local Group (findingμ¯0=19.47±0.06), the Galactic globular clusters M4 (μ¯0=11.16±0.05), and the Reticulum globular cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud (μ¯0=18.23±0.06). The distance moduli determined through all our relations are internally self-consistent (within ≲0.05 mag) but are systematically smaller (by ∼2–3σ) than previous literature measurements taken from a variety of methods/anchors. However, a comparison with similar recent RR Lyrae empirical relations anchored with EDR3 likewise shows, to varying extents, a systematically smaller distance modulus for PLZ/PWZ RR Lyrae relations.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    SX Phoenicis (SXP) variables are short-period pulsating stars that exhibit a period–luminosity (PL) relation. We derived thegri-band PL and extinction-free period–Wesenheit (PW) relations, as well as the period-color and reddening-free period-Q-index relations for 47 SXP stars located in 21 globular clusters, using the optical light curves taken from Zwicky Transient Facility. These empirical relations were derived for the first time in thegrifilters except for theg-band PL relation. We used ourgi-band PL and PW relations to derive a distance modulus to Crater II dwarf spheroidal which hosts one SXP variable. Assuming that the fundamental and first-overtone pulsation mode for the SXP variable in Crater II, we found distance moduli of 20.03 ± 0.23 mag and 20.37 ± 0.24 mag, respectively, using the PW relation, where the latter is in excellent agreement with independent RR Lyrae based distance to Crater II dwarf galaxy.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract We present the first gri -band period–luminosity (PL) and period–Wesenheit (PW) relations for 37 Type II Cepheids (TIICs) located in 18 globular clusters based on photometric data from the Zwicky Transient Facility. We also updated BVIJHK -band absolute magnitudes for 58 TIICs in 24 globular clusters using the latest homogeneous distances to the globular clusters. The slopes of g / r / i - and B / V / I -band PL relations are found to be statistically consistent when using the same sample of distance and reddening. We employed the calibration of ri -band PL/PW relations in globular clusters to estimate a distance to M31 based on a sample of ∼270 TIICs from the PAndromeda project. The distance modulus to M31, obtained using calibrated ri -band PW relation, agrees well with the recent determination based on classical Cepheids. However, distance moduli derived using the calibrated r - and i -band PL relations are systematically smaller by ∼0.2 mag, suggesting there are possible additional systematic errors on the PL relations. Finally, we also derive the period–color (PC) relations and for the first time the period–Q-index (PQ) relations, where the Q -index is reddening free, for our sample of TIICs. The PC relations based on ( r − i ) and near-infrared colors and the PQ relations are found to be relatively independent of the pulsation periods. 
    more » « less