skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: A printability assessment framework for fabricating low variability nickel-niobium parts using laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing
Purpose There is recent emphasis on designing new materials and alloys specifically for metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, in contrast to AM of existing alloys that were developed for other traditional manufacturing methods involving considerably different physics. Process optimization to determine processing recipes for newly developed materials is expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of the current work is to use a systematic printability assessment framework developed by the co-authors to determine windows of processing parameters to print defect-free parts from a binary nickel-niobium alloy (NiNb5) using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) metal AM. Design/methodology/approach The printability assessment framework integrates analytical thermal modeling, uncertainty quantification and experimental characterization to determine processing windows for NiNb5 in an accelerated fashion. Test coupons and mechanical test samples were fabricated on a ProX 200 commercial LPBF system. A series of density, microstructure and mechanical property characterization was conducted to validate the proposed framework. Findings Near fully-dense parts with more than 99% density were successfully printed using the proposed framework. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of as-printed parts showed low variability, good tensile strength of up to 662 MPa and tensile ductility 51% higher than what has been reported in the literature. Originality/value Although many literature studies investigate process optimization for metal AM, there is a lack of a systematic printability assessment framework to determine manufacturing process parameters for newly designed AM materials in an accelerated fashion. Moreover, the majority of existing process optimization approaches involve either time- and cost-intensive experimental campaigns or require the use of proprietary computational materials codes. Through the use of a readily accessible analytical thermal model coupled with statistical calibration and uncertainty quantification techniques, the proposed framework achieves both efficiency and accessibility to the user. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that following this framework results in printed parts with low degrees of variability in their mechanical properties.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1846676
NSF-PAR ID:
10328591
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Rapid Prototyping Journal
Volume:
27
Issue:
9
ISSN:
1355-2546
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1737 to 1748
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Designing alloys for additive manufacturing (AM) presents significant opportunities. Still, the chemical composition and processing conditions required for printability (ie., their suitability for fabrication via AM) are challenging to explore using solely experimental means. In this work, we develop a high-throughput (HTP) computational framework to guide the search for highly printable alloys and appropriate processing parameters. The framework uses material properties from stateof- the-art databases, processing parameters, and simulated melt pool profiles to predict processinduced defects, such as lack-of-fusion, keyholing, and balling. We accelerate the printability assessment using a deep learning surrogate for a thermal model, enabling a 1,000-fold acceleration in assessing the printability of a given alloy at no loss in accuracy when compared with conventional physics-based thermal models. We verify and validate the framework by constructing printability maps for the CoCrFeMnNi Cantor alloy system and comparing our predictions to an exhaustive ’in-house’ database. The framework enables the systematic investigation of the printability of a wide range of alloys in the broader Co-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni HEA system. We identified the most promising alloys that were suitable for high-temperature applications and had the narrowest solidification ranges, and that was the least susceptible to balling, hot-cracking, and the formation of macroscopic printing defects. A new metric for the global printability of an alloy is constructed and is further used for the ranking of candidate alloys. The proposed framework is expected to be integrated into ICME approaches to accelerate the discovery and optimization of novel high-performance, printable alloys. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Although ceramic particle‐metal matrix materials (i.e., cermets) can offer superior performance, manufacturing these materials via conventional means is difficult compared to the manufacturing of metal alloys. This study leverages the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process to additively manufacture dense tungsten carbide (WC)‐17 wt.% nickel (Ni) composite specimens using novel spherical, sintered‐agglomerated composite powder. A range of processing parameters yielding high‐density specimens was discovered using a sequential series of experiments comprised of single bead, multi‐layer, and cylindrical builds. Cylinders with a relative density >99% were fabricated and characterized in terms of microstructure, chemical composition, and hardness. Scanning electron microscopy images show favorable wetting between the Ni binder and carbide particles without any phase segregation and laser processing increased the average carbide particle size. Energy dispersive X‐ray and X‐ray diffraction analyses detected traces of secondary products after laser processing. For samples processed at high energy densities, complex carbides and carbon agglomerate phases were detected. The maximum hardness of 60.38 Rockwell C is achieved in the printed samples. The successful builds in this study open the way for LPBF of dense WC‐Ni parts with a large workable laser power‐laser velocity processing window.

     
    more » « less
  3. This NSF IUSE project is on the Exploration and Design Tier and the Engaged Student Learning Track. It is aimed at better preparing the country’s professional workforce in the renaissance of U.S. skilled manufacturing by creating new personnel proficient in additive manufacturing (AM). AM is mainstream; it has the potential to bring jobs back to the U.S. and add to the nation’s global competitiveness. AM is the process of joining materials to make objects from 3D data in a layer upon layer fashion. The objectives are to develop, assess, revise, and disseminate an upper division course and laboratory, “Additive Manufacturing,” and to advance undergraduate and K-12 student research and creative inquiry activities as well as faculty expertise at three diverse participating universities: Texas Tech, California State-Northridge, and Kansas State. This research/pedagogical team contains a mechanical engineering professor at each university to develop and teach the course, as well as a sociologist trained in K-12 outreach, course assessment, and human subjects research to accurately determine the effects on K-12 and undergraduate students. The proposed course will cover extrusion-based, liquid-based, and powder-based AM processes. For each technology, fundamentals, applications, and advances will be discussed. Students will learn solutions to AM of polymers, metals, and ceramics. Two lab projects will be built to provide hands-on experiences on a variety of state-of-the-art 3D printers. To stimulate innovation, students will design, fabricate, and measure test parts, and will perform experiments to explore process limits and tackle real world problems. They will also engage K-12 students through video demonstrations and mentorship, thus developing presentation skills. Through the project, different pedagogical techniques and assessment tools will be utilized to assess and improve engineering education at both the undergraduate and K-12 levels through varied techniques: i) undergraduate module lesson plans that are scalable to K-12 levels, ii) short informational video lessons created by undergraduates for K-12 students with accompanying in-person mentorship activities at local high schools and MakerSpaces, iii) pre- and post-test assessments of undergraduates’ and K-12 participating students’ AM knowledge, skills, and perceptions of self-efficacy, and iv) focus groups to learn about student concerns/learning challenges. We will also track students institutionally and into their early careers to learn about their use of AM technology professionally. 
    more » « less
  4. This NSF IUSE project is on the Exploration and Design Tier and the Engaged Student Learning Track. It is aimed at better preparing the country’s professional workforce in the renaissance of U.S. skilled manufacturing by creating new personnel proficient in additive manufacturing (AM). AM is mainstream; it has the potential to bring jobs back to the U.S. and add to the nation’s global competitiveness. AM is the process of joining materials to make objects from 3D data in a layer upon layer fashion. The objectives are to develop, assess, revise, and disseminate an upper division course and laboratory, “Additive Manufacturing,” and to advance undergraduate and K-12 student research and creative inquiry activities as well as faculty expertise at three diverse participating universities: Texas Tech, California State Northridge, and Kansas State. This research/pedagogical team contains a mechanical engineering professor at each university to develop and teach the course, as well as a sociologist trained in K-12 outreach, course assessment, and human subjects research to accurately determine the effects on K-12 and undergraduate students. The proposed course will cover extrusion-based, liquid-based, and powder-based AM processes. For each technology, fundamentals, applications, and advances will be discussed. Students will learn solutions to AM of polymers, metals, and ceramics. Two lab projects will be built to provide hands-on experiences on a variety of state-of-the-art 3D printers. To stimulate innovation, students will design, fabricate, and measure test parts, and will perform experiments to explore process limits and tackle real world problems. They will also engage K-12 students through video demonstrations and mentorship, thus developing presentation skills. Through the project, different pedagogical techniques and assessment tools will be utilized to assess and improve engineering education at both the undergraduate and K-12 levels through varied techniques: i) undergraduate module lesson plans that are scalable to K-12 levels, ii) short informational video lessons created by undergraduates for K-12 students with accompanying in-person mentorship activities at local high schools and MakerSpaces, iii) pre- and post-test assessments of undergraduates’ and K-12 participating students’ AM knowledge, skills, and perceptions of self-efficacy, and iv) focus groups to learn about student concerns/learning challenges. We will also track students institutionally and into their early careers to learn about their use of AM technology professionally. 
    more » « less
  5. IMECE2022-88301 Additive manufacturing (AM) is transforming industrial production. AM can produce parts with complex geometries and functionality. However, one of the biggest challenges in the AM world is limited material options. The purpose of this research is to develop new material mixtures and determine their mechanical properties for use at the MSOE Rapid Prototyping Center and provide valuable insight into beta materials for use in AM industry. Elastomeric polyurethane (EPU 40) and Rigid polyurethane (RPU 70), resins developed by Carbon3D, are employed for this research. Initially, EPU 40 (100%) and RPU 70 (100%) were used to print tensile and hardness test specimens so that their mechanical properties could be compared to the standard values presented by Carbon3D and used as benchmarks for newly developed material. Mixtures of the two materials, EPU 40 and RPU 70, in multiple ratios were then created and used to print tensile and hardness test specimens. Data collected from tensile and hardness tests show that EPU 40 and RPU 70 can be combined in various ratios to obtain material properties that lie between the two individual components. In addition to developing these new materials, the effect of printing orientation on mechanical properties was also studied in this paper. 
    more » « less