skip to main content

Title: Multi-year, spatially extensive, watershed-scale synoptic stream chemistry and water quality conditions for six permafrost-underlain Arctic watersheds
Abstract. Repeated sampling of spatially distributed riverchemistry can be used to assess the location, scale, and persistence ofcarbon and nutrient contributions to watershed exports. Here, we provide acomprehensive set of water chemistry measurements and ecohydrologicalmetrics describing the biogeochemical conditions of permafrost-affectedArctic watersheds. These data were collected in watershed-wide synopticcampaigns in six stream networks across northern Alaska. Three watershedsare associated with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site at ToolikField Station (TFS), which were sampled seasonally each June and August from2016 to 2018. Three watersheds were associated with the National ParkService (NPS) of Alaska and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and weresampled annually from 2015 to 2019. Extensive water chemistrycharacterization included carbon species, dissolved nutrients, and majorions. The objective of the sampling designs and data acquisition was tocharacterize terrestrial–aquatic linkages and processing of material instream networks. The data allow estimation of novel ecohydrological metricsthat describe the dominant location, scale, and overall persistence ofecosystem processes in continuous permafrost. These metrics are (1)subcatchment leverage, (2) variance collapse, and (3) spatial persistence.Raw data are available at the National Park Service Integrated Resource Management Applications portal (O'Donnell et al., 2021, and within the Environmental Data Initiative (Abbott, 2021,
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1906381 1916567 1916565
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Earth System Science Data
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
95 to 116
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract. Internally consistent, quality-controlled (QC) data products play animportant role in promoting regional-to-global research efforts tounderstand societal vulnerabilities to ocean acidification (OA). However,there are currently no such data products for the coastal ocean, where mostof the OA-susceptible commercial and recreational fisheries and aquacultureindustries are located. In this collaborative effort, we compiled, quality-controlled, and synthesized 2 decades of discrete measurements ofinorganic carbon system parameters, oxygen, and nutrient chemistry data fromthe North American continental shelves to generate a data product calledthe Coastal Ocean Data Analysis Product in North America (CODAP-NA). Thereare few deep-water (> 1500 m) sampling locations in the currentdata product. As a result, crossover analyses, which rely on comparisonsbetween measurements on different cruises in the stable deep ocean, couldnot form the basis for cruise-to-cruise adjustments. For this reason, carewas taken in the selection of data sets to include in this initial releaseof CODAP-NA, and only data sets from laboratories with known qualityassurance practices were included. New consistency checks and outlierdetections were used to QC the data. Future releases of this CODAP-NAproduct will use this core data product as the basis for cruise-to-cruisecomparisons. We worked closely with the investigators who collected andmeasured these data during the QC process. This version (v2021) of theCODAP-NAmore »is comprised of 3391 oceanographic profiles from 61 researchcruises covering all continental shelves of North America, from Alaska toMexico in the west and from Canada to the Caribbean in the east. Data for 14variables (temperature; salinity; dissolved oxygen content; dissolvedinorganic carbon content; total alkalinity; pH on total scale; carbonateion content; fugacity of carbon dioxide; and substance contents of silicate,phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, nitrate plus nitrite, and ammonium) have beensubjected to extensive QC. CODAP-NA is available as a merged data product(Excel, CSV, MATLAB, and NetCDF;,, last access: 15 May 2021)(Jiang et al., 2021a). The original cruise data have also been updated withdata providers' consent and summarized in a table with links to NOAA'sNational Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) archives(« less
  2. Abstract
    This dataset incorporates Mexico City related essential data files associated with Beth Tellman's dissertation: Mapping and Modeling Illicit and Clandestine Drivers of Land Use Change: Urban Expansion in Mexico City and Deforestation in Central America. It contains spatio-temporal datasets covering three domains; i) urban expansion from 1992-2015, ii) district and section electoral records for 6 elections from 2000-2015, iii) land titling (regularization) data for informal settlements from 1997-2012 on private and ejido land. The urban expansion data includes 30m resolution urban land cover for 1992 and 2013 (methods published in Goldblatt et al 2018), and a shapefile of digitized urban informal expansion in conservation land from 2000-2015 using the Worldview-2 satellite. The electoral records include shapefiles with the geospatial boundaries of electoral districts and sections for each election, and .csv files of the number of votes per party for mayoral, delegate, and legislature candidates. The private land titling data includes the approximate (in coordinates) location and date of titles given by the city government (DGRT) extracted from public records (Diario Oficial) from 1997-2012. The titling data on ejido land includes a shapefile of georeferenced polygons taken from photos in the CORETT office or ejido land that has been expropriatedMore>>
  3. Obeid, I. (Ed.)
    The Neural Engineering Data Consortium (NEDC) is developing the Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus (TUDP), an open source database of high-resolution images from scanned pathology samples [1], as part of its National Science Foundation-funded Major Research Instrumentation grant titled “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning” [2]. The long-term goal of this project is to release one million images. We have currently scanned over 100,000 images and are in the process of annotating breast tissue data for our first official corpus release, v1.0.0. This release contains 3,505 annotated images of breast tissue including 74 patients with cancerous diagnoses (out of a total of 296 patients). In this poster, we will present an analysis of this corpus and discuss the challenges we have faced in efficiently producing high quality annotations of breast tissue. It is well known that state of the art algorithms in machine learning require vast amounts of data. Fields such as speech recognition [3], image recognition [4] and text processing [5] are able to deliver impressive performance with complex deep learning models because they have developed large corpora to support training of extremely high-dimensional models (e.g., billions of parameters). Other fields that do notmore »have access to such data resources must rely on techniques in which existing models can be adapted to new datasets [6]. A preliminary version of this breast corpus release was tested in a pilot study using a baseline machine learning system, ResNet18 [7], that leverages several open-source Python tools. The pilot corpus was divided into three sets: train, development, and evaluation. Portions of these slides were manually annotated [1] using the nine labels in Table 1 [8] to identify five to ten examples of pathological features on each slide. Not every pathological feature is annotated, meaning excluded areas can include focuses particular to these labels that are not used for training. A summary of the number of patches within each label is given in Table 2. To maintain a balanced training set, 1,000 patches of each label were used to train the machine learning model. Throughout all sets, only annotated patches were involved in model development. The performance of this model in identifying all the patches in the evaluation set can be seen in the confusion matrix of classification accuracy in Table 3. The highest performing labels were background, 97% correct identification, and artifact, 76% correct identification. A correlation exists between labels with more than 6,000 development patches and accurate performance on the evaluation set. Additionally, these results indicated a need to further refine the annotation of invasive ductal carcinoma (“indc”), inflammation (“infl”), nonneoplastic features (“nneo”), normal (“norm”) and suspicious (“susp”). This pilot experiment motivated changes to the corpus that will be discussed in detail in this poster presentation. To increase the accuracy of the machine learning model, we modified how we addressed underperforming labels. One common source of error arose with how non-background labels were converted into patches. Large areas of background within other labels were isolated within a patch resulting in connective tissue misrepresenting a non-background label. In response, the annotation overlay margins were revised to exclude benign connective tissue in non-background labels. Corresponding patient reports and supporting immunohistochemical stains further guided annotation reviews. The microscopic diagnoses given by the primary pathologist in these reports detail the pathological findings within each tissue site, but not within each specific slide. The microscopic diagnoses informed revisions specifically targeting annotated regions classified as cancerous, ensuring that the labels “indc” and “dcis” were used only in situations where a micropathologist diagnosed it as such. Further differentiation of cancerous and precancerous labels, as well as the location of their focus on a slide, could be accomplished with supplemental immunohistochemically (IHC) stained slides. When distinguishing whether a focus is a nonneoplastic feature versus a cancerous growth, pathologists employ antigen targeting stains to the tissue in question to confirm the diagnosis. For example, a nonneoplastic feature of usual ductal hyperplasia will display diffuse staining for cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and no diffuse staining for estrogen receptor (ER), while a cancerous growth of ductal carcinoma in situ will have negative or focally positive staining for CK5 and diffuse staining for ER [9]. Many tissue samples contain cancerous and non-cancerous features with morphological overlaps that cause variability between annotators. The informative fields IHC slides provide could play an integral role in machine model pathology diagnostics. Following the revisions made on all the annotations, a second experiment was run using ResNet18. Compared to the pilot study, an increase of model prediction accuracy was seen for the labels indc, infl, nneo, norm, and null. This increase is correlated with an increase in annotated area and annotation accuracy. Model performance in identifying the suspicious label decreased by 25% due to the decrease of 57% in the total annotated area described by this label. A summary of the model performance is given in Table 4, which shows the new prediction accuracy and the absolute change in error rate compared to Table 3. The breast tissue subset we are developing includes 3,505 annotated breast pathology slides from 296 patients. The average size of a scanned SVS file is 363 MB. The annotations are stored in an XML format. A CSV version of the annotation file is also available which provides a flat, or simple, annotation that is easy for machine learning researchers to access and interface to their systems. Each patient is identified by an anonymized medical reference number. Within each patient’s directory, one or more sessions are identified, also anonymized to the first of the month in which the sample was taken. These sessions are broken into groupings of tissue taken on that date (in this case, breast tissue). A deidentified patient report stored as a flat text file is also available. Within these slides there are a total of 16,971 total annotated regions with an average of 4.84 annotations per slide. Among those annotations, 8,035 are non-cancerous (normal, background, null, and artifact,) 6,222 are carcinogenic signs (inflammation, nonneoplastic and suspicious,) and 2,714 are cancerous labels (ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma in situ.) The individual patients are split up into three sets: train, development, and evaluation. Of the 74 cancerous patients, 20 were allotted for both the development and evaluation sets, while the remain 34 were allotted for train. The remaining 222 patients were split up to preserve the overall distribution of labels within the corpus. This was done in hope of creating control sets for comparable studies. Overall, the development and evaluation sets each have 80 patients, while the training set has 136 patients. In a related component of this project, slides from the Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC) Biosample Repository ( -facility) are being digitized in addition to slides provided by Temple University Hospital. This data includes 18 different types of tissue including approximately 38.5% urinary tissue and 16.5% gynecological tissue. These slides and the metadata provided with them are already anonymized and include diagnoses in a spreadsheet with sample and patient ID. We plan to release over 13,000 unannotated slides from the FCCC Corpus simultaneously with v1.0.0 of TUDP. Details of this release will also be discussed in this poster. Few digitally annotated databases of pathology samples like TUDP exist due to the extensive data collection and processing required. The breast corpus subset should be released by November 2021. By December 2021 we should also release the unannotated FCCC data. We are currently annotating urinary tract data as well. We expect to release about 5,600 processed TUH slides in this subset. We have an additional 53,000 unprocessed TUH slides digitized. Corpora of this size will stimulate the development of a new generation of deep learning technology. In clinical settings where resources are limited, an assistive diagnoses model could support pathologists’ workload and even help prioritize suspected cancerous cases. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This material is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants nos. CNS-1726188 and 1925494. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. REFERENCES [1] N. Shawki et al., “The Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York City, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 67 104. [2] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning.” Major Research Instrumentation (MRI), Division of Computer and Network Systems, Award No. 1726188, January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2021. https://www. [3] A. Gulati et al., “Conformer: Convolution-augmented Transformer for Speech Recognition,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH), 2020, pp. 5036-5040. [4] C.-J. Wu et al., “Machine Learning at Facebook: Understanding Inference at the Edge,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), 2019, pp. 331–344. [5] I. Caswell and B. Liang, “Recent Advances in Google Translate,” Google AI Blog: The latest from Google Research, 2020. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01-Aug-2021]. [6] V. Khalkhali, N. Shawki, V. Shah, M. Golmohammadi, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Low Latency Real-Time Seizure Detection Using Transfer Deep Learning,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2021, pp. 1 7. https://www.isip. [7] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning,” Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2020. [8] I. Hunt, S. Husain, J. Simons, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Recent Advances in the Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2019, pp. 1–4. [9] A. P. Martinez, C. Cohen, K. Z. Hanley, and X. (Bill) Li, “Estrogen Receptor and Cytokeratin 5 Are Reliable Markers to Separate Usual Ductal Hyperplasia From Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Low-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 686–689, Apr. 2016.« less
  4. Abstract
    <p>A biodiversity dataset graph: UCSB-IZC</p> <p>The intended use of this archive is to facilitate (meta-)analysis of the UC Santa Barbara Invertebrate Zoology Collection (UCSB-IZC). UCSB-IZC is a natural history collection of invertebrate zoology at Cheadle Center of Biodiversity and Ecological Restoration, University of California Santa Barbara.</p> <p>This dataset provides versioned snapshots of the UCSB-IZC network as tracked by Preston [2,3] between 2021-10-08 and 2021-11-04 using [preston track &#34;;d6097f75-f99e-4c2a-b8a5-b0fc213ecbd0&#34;].</p> <p>This archive contains 14349 images related to 32533 occurrence/specimen records. See included sample-image.jpg and their associated meta-data sample-image.json [4].</p> <p>The images were counted using:</p> <p>$ preston cat hash://sha256/80c0f5fc598be1446d23c95141e87880c9e53773cb2e0b5b54cb57a8ea00b20c\<br />  | grep -o -P &#34;.*depict&#34;\<br />  | sort\<br />  | uniq\<br />  | wc -l</p> <p>And the occurrences were counted using:</p> <p>$ preston cat hash://sha256/80c0f5fc598be1446d23c95141e87880c9e53773cb2e0b5b54cb57a8ea00b20c\<br />  | grep -o -P &#34;occurrence/([0-9])&#43;&#34;\<br />  | sort\<br />  | uniq\<br />  | wc -l</p> <p>The archive consists of 256 individual parts (e.g., preston-00.tar.gz, preston-01.tar.gz, ...) to allow for parallel file downloads. The archive contains three types of files: index files, provenance files and data files. Only two index and provenance files are included and have been individually included in this dataset publication. Index files provide a way to links provenance files in time to establishMore>>
  5. Abstract. Recent observations of near-surface soil temperatures over the circumpolarArctic show accelerated warming of permafrost-affected soils. Theavailability of a comprehensive near-surface permafrost and active layerdataset is critical to better understanding climate impacts and toconstraining permafrost thermal conditions and its spatial distribution inland system models. We compiled a soil temperature dataset from 72 monitoringstations in Alaska using data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, theNational Park Service, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks permafrostmonitoring networks. The array of monitoring stations spans a large range oflatitudes from 60.9 to 71.3N and elevations from near sea level to∼1300m, comprising tundra and boreal forest regions. This datasetconsists of monthly ground temperatures at depths up to 1m,volumetric soil water content, snow depth, and air temperature during1997–2016. These data have been quality controlled in collection andprocessing. Meanwhile, we implemented data harmonization evaluation for theprocessed dataset. The final product (PF-AK, v0.1) is available at the ArcticData Center (