Multi-label annotation is challenging since a large amount of well-labeled training data are required to achieve promising performance. However, providing such data is expensive while unlabeled data are widely available. To this end, we propose a novel Adaptive Graph Guided Embedding (AG2E) approach for multi-label annotation in a semi-supervised fashion, which utilizes limited labeled data associating with large-scale unlabeled data to facilitate learning performance. Specifically, a multi-label propagation scheme and an effective embedding are jointly learned to seek a latent space where unlabeled instances tend to be well assigned multiple labels. Furthermore, a locality structure regularizer is designed to preserve the intrinsic structure and enhance the multi-label annotation. We evaluate our model in both conventional multi-label learning and zero-shot learning scenario. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach outperforms other compared state-of-the-art methods.
It Takes Two Flints to Make a Fire: Multitask Learning of Neural Relation and Explanation Classifiers
We propose an explainable approach for relation extraction that mitigates the tension between generalization and explainability by jointly training for the two goals. Our approach uses a multi-task learning architecture, which jointly trains a classifier for relation extraction, and a sequence model that labels words in the context of the relation that explain the decisions of the relation classifier. We also convert the model outputs to rules to bring global explanations to this approach. This sequence model is trained using a hybrid strategy: supervised, when supervision from pre-existing patterns is available, and semi-supervised otherwise. In the latter situation, we treat the sequence model’s labels as latent variables, and learn the best assignment that maximizes the performance of the relation classifier. We evaluate the proposed approach on the two datasets and show that the sequence model provides labels that serve as accurate explanations for the relation classifier’s decisions, and, importantly, that the joint training generally improves the performance of the relation classifier. We also evaluate the performance of the generated rules and show that the new rules are great add-on to the manual rules and bring the rule-based system much closer to the neural models.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
This paper presents a policy-driven sequential image augmentation approach for image-related tasks. Our approach applies a sequence of image transformations (e.g., translation, rotation) over a training image, one transformation at a time, with the augmented image from the previous time step treated as the input for the next transformation. This sequential data augmentation substantially improves sample diversity, leading to improved test performance, especially for data-hungry models (e.g., deep neural networks). However, the search for the optimal transformation of each image at each time step of the sequence has high complexity due to its combination nature. To address this challenge, we formulate the search task as a sequential decision process and introduce a deep policy network that learns to produce transformations based on image content. We also develop an iterative algorithm to jointly train a classifier and the policy network in the reinforcement learning setting. The immediate reward of a potential transformation is defined to encourage transformations producing hard samples for the current classifier. At each iteration, we employ the policy network to augment the training dataset, train a classifier with the augmented data, and train the policy net with the aid of the classifier. We apply the above approach tomore »
Recent relation extraction (RE) works have shown encouraging improvements by conducting contrastive learning on silver labels generated by distant supervision before fine-tuning on gold labels. Existing methods typically assume all these silver labels are accurate and treat them equally; however, distant supervision is inevitably noisy–some silver labels are more reliable than others. In this paper, we propose fine-grained contrastive learning (FineCL) for RE, which leverages fine-grained information about which silver labels are and are not noisy to improve the quality of learned relationship representations for RE. We first assess the quality of silver labels via a simple and automatic approach we call “learning order denoising,” where we train a language model to learn these relations and record the order of learned training instances. We show that learning order largely corresponds to label accuracy–early-learned silver labels have, on average, more accurate labels than later-learned silver labels. Then, during pre-training, we increase the weights of accurate labels within a novel contrastive learning objective. Experiments on several RE benchmarks show that FineCL makes consistent and significant performance gains over state-of-the-art methods.
A highly accurate but overconfident model is ill-suited for deployment in critical applications such as healthcare and autonomous driving. The classification outcome should reflect a high uncertainty on ambiguous in-distribution samples that lie close to the decision boundary. The model should also refrain from making overconfident decisions on samples that lie far outside its training distribution, far-out-of-distribution (far-OOD), or on unseen samples from novel classes that lie near its training distribution (near-OOD). This paper proposes an application of counterfactual explanations in fixing an over-confident classifier. Specifically, we propose to fine-tune a given pre-trained classifier using augmentations from a counterfactual explainer (ACE) to fix its uncertainty characteristics while retaining its predictive performance. We perform extensive experiments with detecting far-OOD, near-OOD, and ambiguous samples. Our empirical results show that the revised model has improved uncertainty measures, and its performance is competitive to the state-of-the-art methods.
Label differential privacy is a relaxation of differential privacy for machine learning scenarios where the labels are the only sensitive information that needs to be protected in the training data. For example, imagine a survey from a participant in a university class about their vaccination status. Some attributes of the students are publicly available but their vaccination status is sensitive information and must remain private. Now if we want to train a model that predicts whether a student has received vaccination using only their public information, we can use label-DP. Recent works on label-DP use different ways of adding noise to the labels in order to obtain label-DP models. In this work, we present novel techniques for training models with label-DP guarantees by leveraging unsupervised learning and semi-supervised learning, enabling us to inject less noise while obtaining the same privacy, therefore achieving a better utility-privacy trade-off. We first introduce a framework that starts with an unsupervised classifier f0 and dataset D with noisy label set Y , reduces the noise in Y using f0 , and then trains a new model f using the less noisy dataset. Our noise reduction strategy uses the model f0 to remove the noisy labelsmore »