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Title: Evaluation of molecular photophysical and photochemical properties using linear response time-dependent density functional theory with classical embedding: Successes and challenges
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) based approaches have been developed in recent years to model the excited-state properties and transition processes of the molecules in the gas-phase and in a condensed medium, such as in a solution and protein microenvironment or near semiconductor and metal surfaces. In the latter case, usually, classical embedding models have been adopted to account for the molecular environmental effects, leading to the multi-scale approaches of TDDFT/polarizable continuum model (PCM) and TDDFT/molecular mechanics (MM), where a molecular system of interest is designated as the quantum mechanical region and treated with TDDFT, while the environment is usually described using either a PCM or (non-polarizable or polarizable) MM force fields. In this Perspective, we briefly review these TDDFT-related multi-scale models with a specific emphasis on the implementation of analytical energy derivatives, such as the energy gradient and Hessian, the nonadiabatic coupling, the spin–orbit coupling, and the transition dipole moment as well as their nuclear derivatives for various radiative and radiativeless transition processes among electronic states. Three variations of the TDDFT method, the Tamm–Dancoff approximation to TDDFT, spin–flip DFT, and spin-adiabatic TDDFT, are discussed. Moreover, using a model system (pyridine–Ag 20 complex), we emphasize that caution is needed to more » properly account for system–environment interactions within the TDDFT/MM models. Specifically, one should appropriately damp the electrostatic embedding potential from MM atoms and carefully tune the van der Waals interaction potential between the system and the environment. We also highlight the lack of proper treatment of charge transfer between the quantum mechanics and MM regions as well as the need for accelerated TDDFT modelings and interpretability, which calls for new method developments. « less
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The Journal of Chemical Physics
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National Science Foundation
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