Solid-state laser refrigeration of semiconductors remains an outstanding experimental challenge. In this work, we show that, following excitation with a laser wavelength of 532 nm, bulk diamond crystals doped with H3 centers both emit efficient up-conversion (anti-Stokes) photoluminescence and also show significantly reduced photothermal heating relative to crystals doped with nitrogen–vacancy (NV) centers. The H3 center in diamond is a highly photostable defect that avoids bleaching at high laser irradiances of 10–70 MW/cm[Formula: see text] and has been shown to exhibit laser action, tunable over the visible band of 500–600 nm. The observed reduction of photothermal heating arises due to a decrease in the concentration of absorbing point defects, including NV-centers. These results encourage future exploration of techniques for H3 enrichment in diamonds under high-pressure, high-temperature conditions for the simultaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence cooling and radiation balanced lasing in semiconductor materials. Reducing photothermal heating in diamond through the formation of H3 centers also opens up new possibilities in quantum sensing via optically detected magnetic resonance spectroscopy at ambient conditions.
Imaging dark charge emitters in diamond via carrier-to-photon conversion
The application of color centers in wide-bandgap semiconductors to nanoscale sensing and quantum information processing largely rests on our knowledge of the surrounding crystalline lattice, often obscured by the countless classes of point defects the material can host. Here, we monitor the fluorescence from a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV − ) center in diamond as we illuminate its vicinity. Cyclic charge state conversion of neighboring point defects sensitive to the excitation beam leads to a position-dependent stream of photo-generated carriers whose capture by the probe NV − leads to a fluorescence change. This “charge-to-photon” conversion scheme allows us to image other individual point defects surrounding the probe NV, including nonfluorescent “single-charge emitters” that would otherwise remain unnoticed. Given the ubiquity of color center photochromism, this strategy may likely find extensions to material systems other than diamond.
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- Science Advances
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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