skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on January 1, 2023

Title: Local Access to Random Walks , January 2022
For a graph G on n vertices, naively sampling the position of a random walk of at time t requires work Ω(t). We desire local access algorithms supporting positionG(t) queries, which return the position of a random walk from some fixed start vertex s at time t, where the joint distribution of returned positions is 1/ poly(n) close to those of a uniformly random walk in ℓ1 distance. We first give an algorithm for local access to random walks on a given undirected d-regular graph with eO( 1 1−λ √ n) runtime per query, where λ is the second-largest eigenvalue of the random walk matrix of the graph in absolute value. Since random d-regular graphs G(n, d) are expanders with high probability, this gives an eO(√ n) algorithm for a graph drawn from G(n, d) whp, which improves on the naive method for small numbers of queries. We then prove that no algorithm with subconstant error given probe access to an input d-regular graph can have runtime better than Ω(√ n/ log(n)) per query in expectation when the input graph is drawn from G(n, d), obtaining a nearly matching lower bound. We further show an Ω(n1/4) runtime per query lower bound more » even with an oblivious adversary (i.e. when the query sequence is fixed in advance). We then show that for families of graphs with additional group theoretic structure, dramatically better results can be achieved. We give local access to walks on small-degree abelian Cayley graphs, including cycles and hypercubes, with runtime polylog(n) per query. This also allows for efficient local access to walks on polylog degree expanders. We show that our techniques apply to graphs with high degree by extending or results to graphs constructed using the tensor product (giving fast local access to walks on degree nϵ graphs for any ϵ ∈ (0, 1]) and Cartesian product. « less
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
2006664 2022448
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10338744
Journal Name:
Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science (ITCS 2022)
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Braverman, Mark (Ed.)
    For an abelian group H acting on the set [𝓁], an (H,𝓁)-lift of a graph G₀ is a graph obtained by replacing each vertex by 𝓁 copies, and each edge by a matching corresponding to the action of an element of H. Expanding graphs obtained via abelian lifts, form a key ingredient in the recent breakthrough constructions of quantum LDPC codes, (implicitly) in the fiber bundle codes by Hastings, Haah and O'Donnell [STOC 2021] achieving distance Ω̃(N^{3/5}), and in those by Panteleev and Kalachev [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 2021] of distance Ω(N/log(N)). However, both these constructions are non-explicit. In particular, the latter relies on a randomized construction of expander graphs via abelian lifts by Agarwal et al. [SIAM J. Discrete Math 2019]. In this work, we show the following explicit constructions of expanders obtained via abelian lifts. For every (transitive) abelian group H ⩽ Sym(𝓁), constant degree d ≥ 3 and ε > 0, we construct explicit d-regular expander graphs G obtained from an (H,𝓁)-lift of a (suitable) base n-vertex expander G₀ with the following parameters: ii) λ(G) ≤ 2√{d-1} + ε, for any lift size 𝓁 ≤ 2^{n^{δ}} where δ = δ(d,ε), iii) λ(G) ≤ ε ⋅ d, formore »any lift size 𝓁 ≤ 2^{n^{δ₀}} for a fixed δ₀ > 0, when d ≥ d₀(ε), or iv) λ(G) ≤ Õ(√d), for lift size "exactly" 𝓁 = 2^{Θ(n)}. As corollaries, we obtain explicit quantum lifted product codes of Panteleev and Kalachev of almost linear distance (and also in a wide range of parameters) and explicit classical quasi-cyclic LDPC codes with wide range of circulant sizes. Items (i) and (ii) above are obtained by extending the techniques of Mohanty, O'Donnell and Paredes [STOC 2020] for 2-lifts to much larger abelian lift sizes (as a byproduct simplifying their construction). This is done by providing a new encoding of special walks arising in the trace power method, carefully "compressing" depth-first search traversals. Result (iii) is via a simpler proof of Agarwal et al. [SIAM J. Discrete Math 2019] at the expense of polylog factors in the expansion.« less
  2. Consider an algorithm performing a computation on a huge random object (for example a random graph or a "long" random walk). Is it necessary to generate the entire object prior to the computation, or is it possible to provide query access to the object and sample it incrementally "on-the-fly" (as requested by the algorithm)? Such an implementation should emulate the random object by answering queries in a manner consistent with an instance of the random object sampled from the true distribution (or close to it). This paradigm is useful when the algorithm is sub-linear and thus, sampling the entire object up front would ruin its efficiency. Our first set of results focus on undirected graphs with independent edge probabilities, i.e. each edge is chosen as an independent Bernoulli random variable. We provide a general implementation for this model under certain assumptions. Then, we use this to obtain the first efficient local implementations for the Erdös-Rényi G(n,p) model for all values of p, and the Stochastic Block model. As in previous local-access implementations for random graphs, we support Vertex-Pair and Next-Neighbor queries. In addition, we introduce a new Random-Neighbor query. Next, we give the first local-access implementation for All-Neighbors queries inmore »the (sparse and directed) Kleinberg’s Small-World model. Our implementations require no pre-processing time, and answer each query using O(poly(log n)) time, random bits, and additional space. Next, we show how to implement random Catalan objects, specifically focusing on Dyck paths (balanced random walks on the integer line that are always non-negative). Here, we support Height queries to find the location of the walk, and First-Return queries to find the time when the walk returns to a specified location. This in turn can be used to implement Next-Neighbor queries on random rooted ordered trees, and Matching-Bracket queries on random well bracketed expressions (the Dyck language). Finally, we introduce two features to define a new model that: (1) allows multiple independent (and even simultaneous) instantiations of the same implementation, to be consistent with each other without the need for communication, (2) allows us to generate a richer class of random objects that do not have a succinct description. Specifically, we study uniformly random valid q-colorings of an input graph G with maximum degree Δ. This is in contrast to prior work in the area, where the relevant random objects are defined as a distribution with O(1) parameters (for example, n and p in the G(n,p) model). The distribution over valid colorings is instead specified via a "huge" input (the underlying graph G), that is far too large to be read by a sub-linear time algorithm. Instead, our implementation accesses G through local neighborhood probes, and is able to answer queries to the color of any given vertex in sub-linear time for q ≥ 9Δ, in a manner that is consistent with a specific random valid coloring of G. Furthermore, the implementation is memory-less, and can maintain consistency with non-communicating copies of itself.« less
  3. Consider an algorithm performing a computation on a huge random object. Is it necessary to generate the entire object up front, or is it possible to provide query access to the object and sample it incrementally "on-the-fly"? Such an implementation should emulate the object by answering queries in a manner consistent with a random instance sampled from the true distribution. Our first set of results focus on undirected graphs with independent edge probabilities, under certain assumptions. Then, we use this to obtain the first efficient implementations for the Erdos-Renyi model and the Stochastic Block model. As in previous local-access implementations for random graphs, we support Vertex-Pair and Next-Neighbor queries. We also introduce a new Random-Neighbor query. Next, we show how to implement random Catalan objects, specifically focusing on Dyck paths (always positive random walks on the integer line). Here, we support Height queries to find the position of the walk, and First-Return queries to find the time when the walk returns to a specified height. This in turn can be used to implement Next-Neighbor queries on random rooted/binary trees, and Matching-Bracket queries on random well bracketed expressions. Finally, we define a new model that: (1) allows multiple independent simultaneous instantiationsmore »of the same implementation to be consistent with each other without communication (2) allows us to generate a richer class of random objects that do not have a succinct description. Specifically, we study uniformly random valid q-colorings of an input graph G with max degree Δ. The distribution over valid colorings is specified via a "huge" underlying graph G, that is far too large to be read in sub-linear time. Instead, we access G through local neighborhood probes. We are able to answer queries to the color of any vertex in sub-linear time for q>9Δ.« less
  4. In the k -cut problem, we want to find the lowest-weight set of edges whose deletion breaks a given (multi)graph into k connected components. Algorithms of Karger and Stein can solve this in roughly O ( n 2k ) time. However, lower bounds from conjectures about the k -clique problem imply that Ω ( n (1- o (1)) k ) time is likely needed. Recent results of Gupta, Lee, and Li have given new algorithms for general k -cut in n 1.98k + O(1) time, as well as specialized algorithms with better performance for certain classes of graphs (e.g., for small integer edge weights). In this work, we resolve the problem for general graphs. We show that the Contraction Algorithm of Karger outputs any fixed k -cut of weight α λ k with probability Ω k ( n - α k ), where λ k denotes the minimum k -cut weight. This also gives an extremal bound of O k ( n k ) on the number of minimum k -cuts and an algorithm to compute λ k with roughly n k polylog( n ) runtime. Both are tight up to lower-order factors, with the algorithmic lower bound assuming hardnessmore »of max-weight k -clique. The first main ingredient in our result is an extremal bound on the number of cuts of weight less than 2 λ k / k , using the Sunflower lemma. The second ingredient is a fine-grained analysis of how the graph shrinks—and how the average degree evolves—in the Karger process.« less
  5. The problem of sparsifying a graph or a hypergraph while approximately preserving its cut structure has been extensively studied and has many applications. In a seminal work, Benczúr and Karger (1996) showed that given any n-vertex undirected weighted graph G and a parameter ε ∈ (0,1), there is a near-linear time algorithm that outputs a weighted subgraph G' of G of size Õ(n/ε²) such that the weight of every cut in G is preserved to within a (1 ± ε)-factor in G'. The graph G' is referred to as a (1 ± ε)-approximate cut sparsifier of G. Subsequent recent work has obtained a similar result for the more general problem of hypergraph cut sparsifiers. However, all known sparsification algorithms require Ω(n + m) time where n denotes the number of vertices and m denotes the number of hyperedges in the hypergraph. Since m can be exponentially large in n, a natural question is if it is possible to create a hypergraph cut sparsifier in time polynomial in n, independent of the number of edges. We resolve this question in the affirmative, giving the first sublinear time algorithm for this problem, given appropriate query access to the hypergraph. Specifically, we designmore »an algorithm that constructs a (1 ± ε)-approximate cut sparsifier of a hypergraph H(V,E) in polynomial time in n, independent of the number of hyperedges, when given access to the hypergraph using the following two queries: 1) given any cut (S, ̄S), return the size |δ_E(S)| (cut value queries); and 2) given any cut (S, ̄S), return a uniformly at random edge crossing the cut (cut edge sample queries). Our algorithm outputs a sparsifier with Õ(n/ε²) edges, which is essentially optimal. We then extend our results to show that cut value and cut edge sample queries can also be used to construct hypergraph spectral sparsifiers in poly(n) time, independent of the number of hyperedges. We complement the algorithmic results above by showing that any algorithm that has access to only one of the above two types of queries can not give a hypergraph cut sparsifier in time that is polynomial in n. Finally, we show that our algorithmic results also hold if we replace the cut edge sample queries with a pair neighbor sample query that for any pair of vertices, returns a random edge incident on them. In contrast, we show that having access only to cut value queries and queries that return a random edge incident on a given single vertex, is not sufficient.« less