 NSFPAR ID:
 10339927
 Editor(s):
 Braverman, Mark
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Leibniz international proceedings in informatics
 Volume:
 215
 ISSN:
 18688969
 Page Range / eLocation ID:
 70:170:23
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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We give new quantum algorithms for evaluating composed functions whose inputs may be shared between bottomlevel gates. Let f be an m bit Boolean function and consider an n bit function F obtained by applying f to conjunctions of possibly overlapping subsets of n variables. If f has quantum query complexity Q ( f ) , we give an algorithm for evaluating F using O ~ ( Q ( f ) ⋅ n ) quantum queries. This improves on the bound of O ( Q ( f ) ⋅ n ) that follows by treating each conjunction independently, and our bound is tight for worstcase choices of f . Using completely different techniques, we prove a similar tight composition theorem for the approximate degree of f .By recursively applying our composition theorems, we obtain a nearly optimal O ~ ( n 1 − 2 − d ) upper bound on the quantum query complexity and approximate degree of linearsize depth d AC 0 circuits. As a consequence, such circuits can be PAC learned in subexponential time, even in the challenging agnostic setting. Prior to our work, a subexponentialtime algorithm was not known even for linearsize depth3 AC 0 circuits.As an additional consequence, we show that AC 0 ∘ ⊕ circuits of depth d + 1 require size Ω ~ ( n 1 / ( 1 − 2 − d ) ) ≥ ω ( n 1 + 2 − d ) to compute the Inner Product function even on average. The previous best size lower bound was Ω ( n 1 + 4 − ( d + 1 ) ) and only held in the worst case (Cheraghchi et al., JCSS 2018).more » « less

Bringmann, Karl ; Grohe, Martin ; Puppis, Gabriele ; Svensson, Ola (Ed.)Recently, a number of variants of the notion of cutpreserving hypergraph sparsification have been studied in the literature. These variants include directed hypergraph sparsification, submodular hypergraph sparsification, general notions of approximation including spectral approximations, and more general notions like sketching that can answer cut queries using more general data structures than just sparsifiers. In this work, we provide reductions between these different variants of hypergraph sparsification and establish new upper and lower bounds on the space complexity of preserving their cuts. Specifically, we show that: 1) (1 ± ε) directed hypergraph spectral (respectively cut) sparsification on n vertices efficiently reduces to (1 ± ε) undirected hypergraph spectral (respectively cut) sparsification on n² + 1 vertices. Using the work of Lee and Jambulapati, Liu, and Sidford (STOC 2023) this gives us directed hypergraph spectral sparsifiers with O(n² log²(n) / ε²) hyperedges and directed hypergraph cut sparsifiers with O(n² log(n)/ ε²) hyperedges by using the work of Chen, Khanna, and Nagda (FOCS 2020), both of which improve upon the work of Oko, Sakaue, and Tanigawa (ICALP 2023). 2) Any cut sketching scheme which preserves all cuts in any directed hypergraph on n vertices to a (1 ± ε) factor (for ε = 1/(2^{O(√{log(n)})})) must have worstcase bit complexity n^{3  o(1)}. Because directed hypergraphs are a subclass of submodular hypergraphs, this also shows a worstcase sketching lower bound of n^{3  o(1)} bits for sketching cuts in general submodular hypergraphs. 3) (1 ± ε) monotone submodular hypergraph cut sparsification on n vertices efficiently reduces to (1 ± ε) symmetric submodular hypergraph sparsification on n+1 vertices. Using the work of Jambulapati et. al. (FOCS 2023) this gives us monotone submodular hypergraph sparsifiers with Õ(n / ε²) hyperedges, improving on the O(n³ / ε²) hyperedge bound of Kenneth and Krauthgamer (arxiv 2023). At a high level, our results use the same general principle, namely, by showing that cuts in one class of hypergraphs can be simulated by cuts in a simpler class of hypergraphs, we can leverage sparsification results for the simpler class of hypergraphs.more » « less

Estimating the εapproximate quantiles or ranks of a stream is a fundamental task in data monitoring. Given a stream x_1,..., x_n from a universe \mathcalU with total order, an additiveerror quantile sketch \mathcalM allows us to approximate the rank of any query y\in \mathcalU up to additive ε n error. In 2001, Greenwald and Khanna gave a deterministic algorithm (GK sketch) that solves the εapproximate quantiles estimation problem using O(ε^1 łog(ε n)) space \citegreenwald2001space ; recently, this algorithm was shown to be optimal by Cormode and Vesleý in 2020 \citecormode2020tight. However, due to the intricacy of the GK sketch and its analysis, oversimplified versions of the algorithm are implemented in practical applications, often without any known theoretical guarantees. In fact, it has remained an open question whether the GK sketch can be simplified while maintaining the optimal space bound. In this paper, we resolve this open question by giving a simplified deterministic algorithm that stores at most (2 + o(1))ε^1 łog (ε n) elements and solves the additiveerror quantile estimation problem; as a side benefit, our algorithm achieves a smaller constant factor than the \frac11 2 ε^1 łog(ε n) space bound in the original GK sketch~\citegreenwald2001space. Our algorithm features an easier analysis and still achieves the same optimal asymptotic space complexity as the original GK sketch. Lastly, our simplification enables an efficient data structure implementation, with a worstcase runtime of O(łog(1/ε) + łog łog (ε n)) perelement for the ordinary εapproximate quantile estimation problem. Also, for the related weighted'' quantile estimation problem, we give efficient data structures for our simplified algorithm which guarantee a worstcase perelement runtime of O(łog(1/ε) + łog łog (ε W_n/w_\textrmmin )), achieving an improvement over the previous upper bound of \citeassadi2023generalizing.

Megow, Nicole ; Smith, Adam (Ed.)We prove that for some constant a > 1, for all k ≤ a, MATIME[n^{k(1+o(1))}]/1 ⊄ SIZE[O(n^k)], for some specific o(1) function. This is a super linear polynomial circuit lower bound. Previously, Santhanam [Santhanam, 2007] showed that there exists a constant c>1 such that for all k>1: MATIME[n^{ck}]/1 ⊄ SIZE[O(n^k)]. Inherently to Santhanam’s proof, c is a large constant and there is no upper bound on c. Using ideas from Murray and Williams [Murray and Williams, 2018], one can show for all k>1: MATIME [n^{10 k²}]/1 ⊄ SIZE[O(n^k)]. To prove this result, we construct the first PCP for SPACE[n] with quasilinear verifier time: our PCP has a Õ(n) time verifier, Õ(n) space prover, O(log(n)) queries, and polynomial alphabet size. Prior to this work, PCPs for SPACE[O(n)] had verifiers that run in Ω(n²) time. This PCP also proves that NE has MIP verifiers which run in time Õ(n).more » « less

Santhanam, Rahul (Ed.)Depth3 circuit lower bounds and kSAT algorithms are intimately related; the stateoftheart Σ^k_3circuit lower bound (OrAndOr circuits with bottom fanin at most k) and the kSAT algorithm of Paturi, Pudlák, Saks, and Zane (J. ACM'05) are based on the same combinatorial theorem regarding kCNFs. In this paper we define a problem which reveals new interactions between the two, and suggests a concrete approach to significantly stronger circuit lower bounds and improved kSAT algorithms. For a natural number k and a parameter t, we consider the Enum(k, t) problem defined as follows: given an nvariable kCNF and an initial assignment α, output all satisfying assignments at Hamming distance t(n) of α, assuming that there are no satisfying assignments of Hamming distance less than t(n) of α. We observe that an upper bound b(n, k, t) on the complexity of Enum(k, t) simultaneously implies depth3 circuit lower bounds and kSAT algorithms:  Depth3 circuits: Any Σ^k_3 circuit computing the Majority function has size at least binom(n,n/2)/b(n, k, n/2).  kSAT: There exists an algorithm solving kSAT in time O(∑_{t=1}^{n/2}b(n, k, t)). A simple construction shows that b(n, k, n/2) ≥ 2^{(1  O(log(k)/k))n}. Thus, matching upper bounds for b(n, k, n/2) would imply a Σ^k_3circuit lower bound of 2^Ω(log(k)n/k) and a kSAT upper bound of 2^{(1  Ω(log(k)/k))n}. The former yields an unrestricted depth3 lower bound of 2^ω(√n) solving a long standing open problem, and the latter breaks the Super Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. In this paper, we propose a randomized algorithm for Enum(k, t) and introduce new ideas to analyze it. We demonstrate the power of our ideas by considering the first nontrivial instance of the problem, i.e., Enum(3, n/2). We show that the expected running time of our algorithm is 1.598ⁿ, substantially improving on the trivial bound of 3^{n/2} ≃ 1.732ⁿ. This already improves Σ^3_3 lower bounds for Majority function to 1.251ⁿ. The previous bound was 1.154ⁿ which follows from the work of Håstad, Jukna, and Pudlák (Comput. Complex.'95). By restricting ourselves to monotone CNFs, Enum(k, t) immediately becomes a hypergraph Turán problem. Therefore our techniques might be of independent interest in extremal combinatorics.more » « less