Characterization of species diversity of zooplankton is key to understanding, assessing, and predicting the function and future of pelagic ecosystems throughout the global ocean. The marine zooplankton assemblage, including only metazoans, is highly diverse and taxonomically complex, with an estimated ~28,000 species of 41 major taxonomic groups. This review provides a comprehensive summary of DNA sequences for the barcode region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) for identified specimens. The foundation of this summary is the MetaZooGene Barcode Atlas and Database (MZGdb), a new open-access data and metadata portal that is linked to NCBI GenBank and BOLD data repositories. The MZGdb provides enhanced quality control and tools for assembling COI reference sequence databases that are specific to selected taxonomic groups and/or ocean regions, with associated metadata (e.g., collection georeferencing, verification of species identification, molecular protocols), and tools for statistical analysis, mapping, and visualization. To date, over 150,000 COI sequences for ~ 5600 described species of marine metazoan plankton (including holo- and meroplankton) are available via the MZGdb portal. This review uses the MZGdb as a resource for summaries of COI barcode data and metadata for important taxonomic groups of marine zooplankton and selected regions, including the North Atlantic, Arctic, North Pacific, andmore »
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- Frontiers in Marine Science
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- National Science Foundation
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Comparative analysis of zooplankton diversities and compositions estimated from complement DNA and genomic DNA amplicons, metatranscriptomics, and morphological identificationsFields, David (Ed.)Abstract Community-based diversity analyses, such as metabarcoding, are increasingly popular in the field of metazoan zooplankton community ecology. However, some of the methodological uncertainties remain, such as the potential inflation of diversity estimates resulting from contamination by pseudogene sequences. Furthermore, primer affinity to specific taxonomic groups might skew community composition and structure during PCR. In this study, we estimated OTU (operational taxonomic unit) richness, Shannon’s H’, and the phylum-level community composition of samples from a coastal zooplankton community using four approaches: complement DNA (cDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome oxidase subunit I) gene amplicon, metatranscriptome sequencing, and morphological identification. Results of mismatch distribution demonstrated that 90% is good threshold percentage to differentiate intra- and inter-species. Moderate level of correlations appeared upon comparing the species/OTU richness estimated from the different methods. Results strongly indicated that diversity inflation occurred in the samples amplified from gDNA because of mitochondrial pseudogene contamination (overall, gDNA produced two times more richness compared with cDNA amplicons). The unique community compositions observed in the PCR-based methods indicated that taxonomic amplification bias had occurred during the PCR. Therefore, it is recommended that PCR-free approaches be used whenever resolving community structure represents an essential aspect of the analysis.
New insights into biodiversity, biogeography, ecology, and evolution of marine zooplankton based on molecular approaches
Marine zooplankton are key players in pelagic food webs, central links in ecosystem function, useful indicators of water masses, and rapid responders to environmental variation and climate change. Characterization of biodiversity of the marine zooplankton assemblage is complicated by many factors, including systematic complexity of the assemblage, with numerous rare and cryptic species, and high local-to-global ratios of species diversity. The papers in this themed article set document important advances in molecular protocols and procedures, integration with morphological taxonomic identifications, and quantitative analyses (abundance and biomass). The studies highlight several overarching conclusions and recommendations. A primary issue is the continuing need for morphological taxonomic experts, who can identify species and provide voucher specimens for reference sequence databases, which are essential for biodiversity analyses based on molecular approaches. The power of metabarcoding using multi-gene markers, including both DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)templates, is demonstrated. An essential goal is the accurate identification of species across all taxonomic groups of marine zooplankton, with particular concern for detection of rare, cryptic, and invasive species. Applications of molecular approaches include analysis of trophic relationships by metabarcoding of gut contents, as well as investigation of the underlying ecological and evolutionary forces driving zooplanktonmore »
Biodiversity of Philippine marine fishes: A DNA barcode reference library based on voucher specimens
Accurate identification of fishes is essential for understanding their biology and to ensure food safety for consumers. DNA barcoding is an important tool because it can verify identifications of both whole and processed fishes that have had key morphological characters removed (e.g., filets, fish meal); however, DNA reference libraries are incomplete, and public repositories for sequence data contain incorrectly identified sequences. During a nine-year sampling program in the Philippines, a global biodiversity hotspot for marine fishes, we developed a verified reference library of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for 2,525 specimens representing 984 species. Specimens were primarily purchased from markets, with additional diversity collected using rotenone or fishing gear. Species identifications were verified based on taxonomic, phenotypic, and genotypic data, and sequences are associated with voucher specimens, live-color photographs, and genetic samples catalogued at Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History. The Biodiversity of Philippine Marine Fishes dataset is released herein to increase knowledge of species diversity and distributions and to facilitate accurate identification of market fishes.
Taxonomic revision of the Pheidole megacephala species-group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from the Malagasy RegionBackground The Malagasy Region, one of the top megadiversity regions, hosts one of the highest numbers of endemic and threatened organisms on earth. One of the most spectacular examples of ant radiation on the island has occurred in the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole . To this date, there are 135 described Madagascan Pheidole divided into 16 species-groups, and 97% of Malagasy species are endemic to the island. This study is a taxonomic revision of the Pheidole megacephala group, one of only two species-groups comprising a combination of native, endemic taxa and widely distributed introduced species. Methods The diversity of the Malagasy members of the megacephala group was assessed via application of qualitative morphological and DNA sequence data. Qualitative, external morphological characteristics ( e.g., head shape, gaster sculpture, body colouration) were evaluated in order to create a priori grouping hypotheses, and confirm and improve species delimitation. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene fragments were analyzed to test the putative species previously delimited by morphological analyses. Results We recognize three species belonging to the megacephala group: P. megacephala (Fabricius, 1793), P. megatron Fischer & Fisher, 2013 and P. spinosa Forel, 1891 stat. nov. Pheidole spinosa is redescribed and elevated tomore »