Independent dominating sets in graphs of girth five
Abstract Let $\gamma(G)$ and $${\gamma _ \circ }(G)$$ denote the sizes of a smallest dominating set and smallest independent dominating set in a graph G, respectively. One of the first results in probabilistic combinatorics is that if G is an n -vertex graph of minimum degree at least d , then $$$$\gamma(G) \leq \frac{n}{d}(\log d + 1).$$$$ In this paper the main result is that if G is any n -vertex d -regular graph of girth at least five, then $$$$\gamma_(G) \leq \frac{n}{d}(\log d + c)$$$$ for some constant c independent of d . This result is sharp in the sense that as $d \rightarrow \infty$ , almost all d -regular n -vertex graphs G of girth at least five have $$$$\gamma_(G) \sim \frac{n}{d}\log d.$$$$ Furthermore, if G is a disjoint union of ${n}/{(2d)}$ complete bipartite graphs $K_{d,d}$ , then ${\gamma_\circ}(G) = \frac{n}{2}$ . We also prove that there are n -vertex graphs G of minimum degree d and whose maximum degree grows not much faster than d log d such that ${\gamma_\circ}(G) \sim {n}/{2}$ as $d \rightarrow \infty$ . Therefore both the girth and regularity conditions are required for the main result.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
NSF-PAR ID:
10341285
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Combinatorics, Probability and Computing
Volume:
30
Issue:
3
ISSN:
0963-5483
Page Range / eLocation ID:
344 to 359
Format(s):
Medium: X
National Science Foundation
##### More Like this
1. Abstract

Given a sequence $\{Z_d\}_{d\in \mathbb{N}}$ of smooth and compact hypersurfaces in ${\mathbb{R}}^{n-1}$, we prove that (up to extracting subsequences) there exists a regular definable hypersurface $\Gamma \subset {\mathbb{R}}\textrm{P}^n$ such that each manifold $Z_d$ is diffeomorphic to a component of the zero set on $\Gamma$ of some polynomial of degree $d$. (This is in sharp contrast with the case when $\Gamma$ is semialgebraic, where for example the homological complexity of the zero set of a polynomial $p$ on $\Gamma$ is bounded by a polynomial in $\deg (p)$.) More precisely, given the above sequence of hypersurfaces, we construct a regular, compact, semianalytic hypersurface $\Gamma \subset {\mathbb{R}}\textrm{P}^{n}$ containing a subset $D$ homeomorphic to a disk, and a family of polynomials $\{p_m\}_{m\in \mathbb{N}}$ of degree $\deg (p_m)=d_m$ such that $(D, Z(p_m)\cap D)\sim ({\mathbb{R}}^{n-1}, Z_{d_m}),$ i.e. the zero set of $p_m$ in $D$ is isotopic to $Z_{d_m}$ in ${\mathbb{R}}^{n-1}$. This says that, up to extracting subsequences, the intersection of $\Gamma$ with a hypersurface of degree $d$ can be as complicated as we want. We call these ‘pathological examples’. In particular, we show that for every $0 \leq k \leq n-2$ and every sequence of natural numbers $a=\{a_d\}_{d\in \mathbb{N}}$ there is a regular, compact semianalytic hypersurface $\Gamma \subset {\mathbb{R}}\textrm{P}^n$, a subsequence $\{a_{d_m}\}_{m\in \mathbb{N}}$ and homogeneous polynomials $\{p_{m}\}_{m\in \mathbb{N}}$ of degree $\deg (p_m)=d_m$ such that (0.1)$$$$b_k(\Gamma\cap Z(p_m))\geq a_{d_m}.$$$$ (Here $b_k$ denotes the $k$th Betti number.) This generalizes a result of Gwoździewicz et al. [13]. On the other hand, for a given definable $\Gamma$ we show that the Fubini–Study measure, in the Gaussian probability space of polynomials of degree $d$, of the set $\Sigma _{d_m,a, \Gamma }$ of polynomials verifying (0.1) is positive, but there exists a constant $c_\Gamma$ such that $$\begin{equation*}0<{\mathbb{P}}(\Sigma_{d_m, a, \Gamma})\leq \frac{c_{\Gamma} d_m^{\frac{n-1}{2}}}{a_{d_m}}.\end{equation*}$$ This shows that the set of ‘pathological examples’ has ‘small’ measure (the faster $a$ grows, the smaller the measure and pathologies are therefore rare). In fact we show that given $\Gamma$, for most polynomials a Bézout-type bound holds for the intersection $\Gamma \cap Z(p)$: for every $0\leq k\leq n-2$ and $t>0$: $$\begin{equation*}{\mathbb{P}}\left(\{b_k(\Gamma\cap Z(p))\geq t d^{n-1} \}\right)\leq \frac{c_\Gamma}{td^{\frac{n-1}{2}}}.\end{equation*}$$

more » « less
2. Abstract Given a hereditary property of graphs $\mathcal{H}$ and a $p\in [0,1]$ , the edit distance function $\textrm{ed}_{\mathcal{H}}(p)$ is asymptotically the maximum proportion of edge additions plus edge deletions applied to a graph of edge density p sufficient to ensure that the resulting graph satisfies $\mathcal{H}$ . The edit distance function is directly related to other well-studied quantities such as the speed function for $\mathcal{H}$ and the $\mathcal{H}$ -chromatic number of a random graph. Let $\mathcal{H}$ be the property of forbidding an Erdős–Rényi random graph $F\sim \mathbb{G}(n_0,p_0)$ , and let $\varphi$ represent the golden ratio. In this paper, we show that if $p_0\in [1-1/\varphi,1/\varphi]$ , then a.a.s. as $n_0\to\infty$ , \begin{align*} {\textrm{ed}}_{\mathcal{H}}(p) = (1+o(1))\,\frac{2\log n_0}{n_0} \cdot\min\left\{ \frac{p}{-\log(1-p_0)}, \frac{1-p}{-\log p_0} \right\}. \end{align*} Moreover, this holds for $p\in [1/3,2/3]$ for any $p_0\in (0,1)$ . A primary tool in the proof is the categorization of p -core coloured regularity graphs in the range $p\in[1-1/\varphi,1/\varphi]$ . Such coloured regularity graphs must have the property that the non-grey edges form vertex-disjoint cliques.
more » « less
3. Abstract We suggest two related conjectures dealing with the existence of spanning irregular subgraphs of graphs. The first asserts that any $d$ -regular graph on $n$ vertices contains a spanning subgraph in which the number of vertices of each degree between $0$ and $d$ deviates from $\frac{n}{d+1}$ by at most $2$ . The second is that every graph on $n$ vertices with minimum degree $\delta$ contains a spanning subgraph in which the number of vertices of each degree does not exceed $\frac{n}{\delta +1}+2$ . Both conjectures remain open, but we prove several asymptotic relaxations for graphs with a large number of vertices $n$ . In particular we show that if $d^3 \log n \leq o(n)$ then every $d$ -regular graph with $n$ vertices contains a spanning subgraph in which the number of vertices of each degree between $0$ and $d$ is $(1+o(1))\frac{n}{d+1}$ . We also prove that any graph with $n$ vertices and minimum degree $\delta$ contains a spanning subgraph in which no degree is repeated more than $(1+o(1))\frac{n}{\delta +1}+2$ times.
more » « less
4. Abstract Given $n$ general points $p_1, p_2, \ldots , p_n \in{\mathbb{P}}^r$ it is natural to ask whether there is a curve of given degree $d$ and genus $g$ passing through them; by counting dimensions a natural conjecture is that such a curve exists if and only if $$\begin{equation*}n \leq \left\lfloor \frac{(r + 1)d - (r - 3)(g - 1)}{r - 1}\right\rfloor.\end{equation*}$$The case of curves with nonspecial hyperplane section was recently studied in [2], where the above conjecture was shown to hold with exactly three exceptions. In this paper, we prove a “bounded-error analog” for special linear series on general curves; more precisely we show that existence of such a curve subject to the stronger inequality $$\begin{equation*}n \leq \left\lfloor \frac{(r + 1)d - (r - 3)(g - 1)}{r - 1}\right\rfloor - 3.\end{equation*}$$Note that the $-3$ cannot be replaced with $-2$ without introducing exceptions (as a canonical curve in ${\mathbb{P}}^3$ can only pass through nine general points, while a naive dimension count predicts twelve). We also use the same technique to prove that the twist of the normal bundle $N_C(-1)$ satisfies interpolation for curves whose degree is sufficiently large relative to their genus, and deduce from this that the number of general points contained in the hyperplane section of a general curve is at least $$\begin{equation*}\min\left(d, \frac{(r - 1)^2 d - (r - 2)^2 g - (2r^2 - 5r + 12)}{(r - 2)^2}\right).\end{equation*}$$ As explained in [7], these results play a key role in the author’s proof of the maximal rank conjecture [9].
more » « less
5. Let $p:\mathbb{C}\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ be a polynomial. The Gauss–Lucas theorem states that its critical points, $p^{\prime }(z)=0$ , are contained in the convex hull of its roots. We prove a stability version whose simplest form is as follows: suppose that $p$ has $n+m$ roots, where $n$ are inside the unit disk, $$\begin{eqnarray}\max _{1\leq i\leq n}|a_{i}|\leq 1~\text{and}~m~\text{are outside}~\min _{n+1\leq i\leq n+m}|a_{i}|\geq d>1+\frac{2m}{n};\end{eqnarray}$$ then $p^{\prime }$ has $n-1$ roots inside the unit disk and $m$ roots at distance at least $(dn-m)/(n+m)>1$ from the origin and the involved constants are sharp. We also discuss a pairing result: in the setting above, for $n$ sufficiently large, each of the $m$ roots has a critical point at distance ${\sim}n^{-1}$ .
more » « less