skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: Site-dependent selection of atoms for homogeneous atom-cavity coupling
We demonstrate a method to obtain homogeneous atom-cavity coupling by selecting and keeping 87Rb atoms that are near maximally coupled to the cavity's standing-wave mode. We select atoms by imposing an AC Stark shift on the ground state hyperfine microwave transition frequency with light injected into the cavity. We then induce a spin flip with microwaves that are resonant for atoms that are near maximally coupled to the cavity mode of interest, after which, we use radiation pressure forces to remove from the cavity all the atoms in the initial spin state. Achieving greater homogeneity in the atom-cavity coupling will potentially enhance entanglement generation, intracavity driving of atomic transitions, cavity-optomechanics, and quantum simulations. This approach can easily be extended to other atomic species with microwave or optical transitions.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    We present a toolbox of microstrip building blocks for microwave atom chips geared towards trapped atom interferometry. Transverse trapping potentials based on the AC Zeeman (ACZ) effect can be formed from the combined microwave magnetic near fields of a pair or a triplet of parallel microstrip transmission lines. Axial confinement can be provided by a microwave lattice (standing wave) along the microstrip traces. Microwave fields provide additional parameters for dynamically adjusting ACZ potentials: detuning of the applied frequency to select atomic transitions and local polarization controlled by the relative phase in multiple microwave currents. Multiple ACZ traps and potentials, operating at different frequencies, can be targeted to different spin states simultaneously, thus enabling spin-specific manipulation of atoms and spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract An ensemble of atoms can operate as a quantum sensor by placing atoms in a superposition of two different states. Upon measurement of the sensor, each atom is individually projected into one of the two states. Creating quantum correlations between the atoms, that is entangling them, could lead to resolutions surpassing the standard quantum limit 1–3  set by projections of individual atoms. Large amounts of entanglement 4–6 involving the internal degrees of freedom of laser-cooled atomic ensembles 4–16 have been generated in collective cavity quantum-electrodynamics systems, in which many atoms simultaneously interact with a single optical cavity mode. Here we report a matter-wave interferometer in a cavity quantum-electrodynamics system of 700 atoms that are entangled in their external degrees of freedom. In our system, each individual atom falls freely under gravity and simultaneously traverses two paths through space while entangled with the other atoms. We demonstrate both quantum non-demolition measurements and cavity-mediated spin interactions for generating squeezed momentum states with directly observed sensitivity $$3\,.\,{4}_{-0.9}^{+1.1}$$ 3 . 4 − 0.9 + 1.1  dB and $$2\,.\,{5}_{-0.6}^{+0.6}$$ 2 . 5 − 0.6 + 0.6  dB below the standard quantum limit, respectively. We successfully inject an entangled state into a Mach–Zehnder light-pulse interferometer with directly observed sensitivity $$1\,.\,{7}_{-0.5}^{+0.5}$$ 1 . 7 − 0.5 + 0.5  dB below the standard quantum limit. The combination of particle delocalization and entanglement in our approach may influence developments of enhanced inertial sensors 17,18 , searches for new physics, particles and fields 19–23 , future advanced gravitational wave detectors 24,25 and accessing beyond mean-field quantum many-body physics 26–30 . 
    more » « less
  3. In a conventional atomic interferometer employingNatoms, the phase sensitivity is at the standard quantum limit:1/N. Under usual spin squeezing, the sensitivity is increased by lowering the quantum noise. It is also possible to increase the sensitivity by leaving the quantum noise unchanged while producing phase amplification. Here we show how to increase the sensitivity, to the Heisenberg limit of1/N, while increasing the quantum noise byNand amplifying the phase by a factor ofN. Because of the enhancement of the quantum noise and the large phase magnification, the effect of excess noise is highly suppressed. The protocol uses a Schrödinger cat state representing a maximally entangled superposition of two collective states ofNatoms. The phase magnification occurs when we use either atomic state detection or collective state detection; however, the robustness against excess noise occurs only when atomic state detection is employed. We show that for one version of the protocol, the signal amplitude isNwhenNis even, and is vanishingly small whenNis odd, for both types of detection. We also show how the protocol can be modified to reverse the nature of the signal for odd versus even values ofN. Thus, for a situation where the probability ofNbeing even or odd is equal, the net sensitivity is within a factor of2of the Heisenberg limit. Finally, we discuss potential experimental constraints for implementing this scheme via one-axis-twist squeezing employing the cavity feedback scheme, and show that the effects of cavity decay and spontaneous emission are highly suppressed because of the increased quantum noise and the large phase magnification inherent to the protocol. As a result, we find that the maximum improvement in sensitivity can be close to the ideal limit for as many as 10 million atoms.

    more » « less
  4. We report a high-finesse bow-tie cavity designed for atomic physics experiments with Rydberg atom arrays. The cavity has a finesse of 51,000 and a waist of 7.1μm at the cesium D2 line (852 nm). With these parameters, the cavity is expected to induce strong coupling between a single atom and a single photon, corresponding to a cooperativity per traveling mode of 35 at the cavity waist. To trap and image atoms, the cavity setup utilizes two in-vacuum aspheric lenses with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.35 and is capable of housingNA = 0.5 microscope objectives. In addition, the large atom-mirror distance (≳<#comment/>1.5cm) provides good optical access and minimizes stray electric fields at the position of the atoms. This cavity setup can operate in tandem with a Rydberg array platform, creating a fully connected system for quantum simulation and computation.

    more » « less
  5. We propose to simulate bosonic pair creation using large arrays of long-lived dipoles with multilevel internal structure coupled to an undriven optical cavity. Entanglement between the atoms, generated by the exchange of virtual photons through a common cavity mode, grows exponentially fast and is described by two-mode squeezing (TMS) of effective bosonic quadratures. The mapping between an effective bosonic model and the natural spin description of the dipoles allows us to realize the analog of optical homodyne measurements via straightforward global rotations and population measurements of the electronic states, and we propose to exploit this for quantum-enhanced sensing of an optical phase (common and differential between two ensembles). We discuss a specific implementation based on Sr atoms and show that our sensing protocol is robust to sources of decoherence intrinsic to cavity platforms. Our proposal can open unique opportunities for the observation of continuous variable entanglement in atomic systems and associated applications in next-generation optical atomic clocks. 
    more » « less