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Title: Dissecting the Different Components of the Modest Accretion Bursts of the Very Young Protostar HOPS 373
Abstract Observed changes in protostellar brightness can be complicated to interpret. In our James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Transient Monitoring Survey, we discovered that a young binary protostar, HOPS 373, is undergoing a modest 30% brightness increase at 850 μ m, caused by a factor of 1.8–3.3 enhancement in the accretion rate. The initial burst occurred over a few months, with a sharp rise and then a shallower decay. A second rise occurred soon after the decay, and the source is still bright one year later. The mid-IR emission, the small-scale CO outflow mapped with ALMA, and the location of variable maser emission indicate that the variability is associated with the SW component. The near-IR and NEOWISE W1 and W2 emission is located along the blueshifted CO outflow, spatially offset by ∼3 to 4″ from the SW component. The K -band emission imaged by UKIRT shows a compact H 2 emission source at the edge of the outflow, with a tail tracing the outflow back to the source. The W1 emission, likely dominated by scattered light, brightens by 0.7 mag, consistent with expectations based on the submillimeter light curve. The signal of continuum variability in K band and W2 is masked by stable H 2 emission, as seen in our Gemini/GNIRS spectrum, and perhaps by CO emission. These differences in emission sources complicate IR searches for variability of the youngest protostars.  more » « less
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The Astrophysical Journal
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Medium: X
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National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
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