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X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used to measure valence band offsets for Al 2 O 3 deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition on α -(Al x Ga 1-x ) 2 O 3 alloys over a wide range of Al contents, x, from 0.26–0.74, corresponding to a bandgap range from 5.8–7 eV. These alloys were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition. The band alignments were type I (nested) at x <0.5, with valence band offsets 0.13 eV for x = 0.26 and x = 0.46. At higher Al contents, the band alignment was a staggered alignment, with valence band offsets of − 0.07 eV for x = 0.58 and −0.17 for x = 0.74, ie. negative valence band offsets in both cases. The conduction band offsets are also small at these high Al contents, being only 0.07 eV at x = 0.74. The wide bandgap of the α -(Al x Ga 1-x ) 2 O 3 alloys makes it difficult to find dielectrics with nested band alignments over the entire composition range.
Valence band offsets for SiO 2 deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition on α -(Al x Ga 1-x ) 2 O 3 alloys with x = 0.26–0.74 were measured by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The samples were grown with a continuous composition spread to enable investigations of the band alignment as a function of the alloy composition. From measurement of the core levels in the alloys, the bandgaps were determined to range from 5.8 eV (x = 0.26) to 7 eV (x = 0.74). These are consistent with previous measurements by transmission spectroscopy. The valence band offsets of SiO 2 with these alloys of different composition were, respectively, were −1.2 eV for x = 0.26, −0.2 eV for x = 0.42, 0.2 eV for x = 0.58 and 0.4 eV for x = 0.74. All of these band offsets are too low for most device applications. Given the bandgap of the SiO 2 was 8.7 eV, this led to conduction band offsets of 4.1 eV (x = 0.26) to 1.3 eV (x = 0.74). The band alignments were of the desired nested configuration for x > 0.5, but at lower Al contents the conduction band offsets were negative, with a staggered bandmore »
Infrared-active phonon modes and static dielectric constants in α -(Al x Ga 1− x ) 2 O 3 (0.18 ≤ x ≤ 0.54) alloys
We determine the composition dependence of the transverse and longitudinal optical infrared-active phonon modes in rhombohedral α-(AlxGa1−x)2O3alloys by far-infrared and infrared generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry. Single-crystalline high quality undoped thin-films grown on m-plane oriented α-Al2O3substrates with x = 0.18, 0.37, and 0.54 were investigated. A single mode behavior is observed for all phonon modes, i.e., their frequencies shift gradually between the equivalent phonon modes of the isostructural binary parent compounds. We also provide physical model line shape functions for the anisotropic dielectric functions. We use the anisotropic high-frequency dielectric constants for polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the lattice c axis measured recently by Hilfiker et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 119, 092103 (2021)], and we determine the anisotropic static dielectric constants using the Lyddane–Sachs–Teller relation. The static dielectric constants can be approximated by linear relationships between those of α-Ga2O3and α-Al2O3. The optical phonon modes and static dielectric constants will become useful for device design and free charge carrier characterization using optical techniques.
Anisotropic dielectric function, direction dependent bandgap energy, band order, and indirect to direct gap crossover in α -(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 (0≤x≤1)Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to determine anisotropic optical properties for a set of single-crystal rhombohedral structure α-(Al x Ga 1− x ) 2 O 3 thin films (0 [Formula: see text] x [Formula: see text] 1). Samples are grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane sapphire. A critical-point model is used to render a spectroscopic model dielectric function tensor and to determine direct electronic band-to-band transition parameters, including the direction dependent two lowest-photon energy band-to-band transitions associated with the anisotropic bandgap. We obtain the composition dependence of the direction dependent two lowest band-to-band transitions with separate bandgap bowing parameters associated with the perpendicular ([Formula: see text] = 1.31 eV) and parallel ([Formula: see text] = 1.61 eV) electric field polarization to the lattice c direction. Our density functional theory calculations indicate a transition from indirect to direct characteristics between α-Ga 2 O 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 , respectively, and we identify a switch in band order where the lowest band-to-band transition occurs with polarization perpendicular to c in α-Ga 2 O 3 whereas for α-Al 2 O 3 the lowest transition occurs with polarization parallel to c. We estimate that the change in band order occurs atmore »