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Temperature dependence of elastic and plastic deformation behavior of a refractory high-entropy alloySingle-phase solid-solution refractory high-entropy alloys (HEAs) show remarkable mechanical properties, such as their high yield strength and substantial softening resistance at elevated temperatures. Hence, the in-depth study of the deformation behavior for body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory HEAs is a critical issue to explore the uncovered/unique deformation mechanisms. We have investigated the elastic and plastic deformation behaviors of a single BCC NbTaTiV refractory HEA at elevated temperatures using integrated experimental efforts and theoretical calculations. The in situ neutron diffraction results reveal a temperature-dependent elastic anisotropic deformation behavior. The single-crystal elastic moduli and macroscopic Young’s, shear, and bulk moduli were determined from the in situ neutron diffraction, showing great agreement with first-principles calculations, machine learning, and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy results. Furthermore, the edge dislocation–dominant plastic deformation behaviors, which are different from conventional BCC alloys, were quantitatively described by the Williamson-Hall plot profile modeling and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy.
A Novel Low-Activation VCrFeTaxWx (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 1) High-Entropy Alloys with Excellent Heat-Softening ResistanceThe microstructure, Vickers hardness, and compressive properties of novel low-activation VCrFeTaxWx (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 1) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were studied. The alloys were fabricated by vacuum-arc melting and the characteristics of these alloys were explored. The microstructures of all the alloys exhibited a typical morphology of dendritic and eutectic structures. The VCrFeTa0.1W0.1 and VCrFeTa0.2W0.2 alloys are essentially single phase, consisting of a disordered body-centered-cubic (BCC) phase, whereas the VCrFeTa0.2W0.2 alloy contains fine, nanoscale precipitates distributed in the BCC matrix. The lattice parameters and compositions of the identified phases were investigated. The alloys have Vickers hardness values ranging from 546 HV0.2 to 1135 HV0.2 with the x ranging from 0.1 to 1, respectively. The VCrFeTa0.1W0.1 and VCrFeTa0.2W0.2 alloys exhibit compressive yield strengths of 1341 MPa and 1742 MPa, with compressive plastic strains of 42.2% and 35.7%, respectively. VCrFeTa0.1W0.1 and VCrFeTa0.2W0.2 alloys have excellent hardness after annealing for 25 h at 600–1000 °C, and presented compressive yield strength exceeding 1000 MPa with excellent heat-softening resistance at 600–800 °C. By applying the HEA criteria, Ta and W additions into the VCrFeTaW are proposed as a family of candidate materials for fusion reactors and high-temperature structural applications.
A face-centered-cubic (fcc) oriented FeCoCrNiAl0.5dual-phase high entropy alloy (HEA) was plastically strained in uniaxial compression at 77K and 293K and the underlying deformation mechanisms were studied. The undeformed microstructure consists of a body-centered-cubic (bcc)/B2 interdendritic network and precipitates embedded in 〈001〉-oriented fcc dendrites. In contrast to other dual-phase HEAs, at both deformation temperatures a steep rise in the stress-strain curves occurs above 23% total axial strain. As a result, the hardening rate associated saturates at the unusual high value of ~6 GPa. Analysis of the strain partitioning between fcc and bcc/B2 by digital image correlation shows that the fcc component carries the larger part of the plastic strain. Further, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy evidence ample fcc deformation twinning both at 77K and 293K, while slip activity only is found in the bcc/B2. These results may guide future advancements in the design of novel alloys with superior toughening characteristics.
Abstract Energy efficiency is motivating the search for new high-temperature (high-T) metals. Some new body-centered-cubic (BCC) random multicomponent “high-entropy alloys (HEAs)” based on refractory elements (Cr-Mo-Nb-Ta-V-W-Hf-Ti-Zr) possess exceptional strengths at high temperatures but the physical origins of this outstanding behavior are not known. Here we show, using integrated in-situ neutron-diffraction (ND), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and recent theory, that the high strength and strength retention of a NbTaTiV alloy and a high-strength/low-density CrMoNbV alloy are attributable to edge dislocations. This finding is surprising because plastic flows in BCC elemental metals and dilute alloys are generally controlled by screw dislocations. We use the insight and theory to perform a computationally-guided search over 10 7 BCC HEAs and identify over 10 6 possible ultra-strong high-T alloy compositions for future exploration.
The empirical parameters of mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix), mixing entropy (ΔSmix), atomic radius difference (δ), valence electron concentration (VEC), etc., are used in this study to design a depleted uranium high-entropy alloy (HEA). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the phase composition. Compression and hardness tests were conducted to select alloy constituents with outstanding mechanical properties. Based on the experimental results, the empirical criteria of HEAs are an effective means to develop depleted uranium high-entropy alloys (DUHEAs). Finally, we created UNb0.5Zr0.5Mo0.5 and UNb0.5Zr0.5Ti0.2Mo0.2 HEAs with outstanding all-round characteristics. Both alloys were composed of a single BCC structure. The hardness and strength of UNb0.5Zr0.5Mo0.5 and UNb0.5Zr0.5Ti0.2Mo0.2 were 305 HB and 1452 MPa, and 297 HB and 1157 MPa, respectively.