An Activity Recognition System for Taking Medicine Using In-The-Wild Data to Promote Medication Adherence
Nearly half of people prescribed medication to treat chronic or short-term conditions do not take their medicine as prescribed. This leads to worse treatment outcomes, higher hospital admission rates, increased healthcare costs, and increased morbidity and mortality rates. While some instances of medication non-adherence are a result of problems with the treatment plan or barriers caused by the health care provider, many are instances caused by patient-related factors such as forgetting, running out of medication, and not understanding the required dosages. This presents a clear need for patient-centered systems that can reliably increase medication adherence. To that end, in this work we describe an activity recognition system capable of recognizing when individuals take medication in an unconstrained, real-world environment. Our methodology uses a modified version of the Bagging ensemble method to suit unbalanced data and a classifier trained on the prediction probabilities of the Bagging classifier to identify when individuals took medication during a full-day study. Using this methodology we are able to recognize when individuals took medication with an F-measure of 0.77. Our system is a first step towards developing personal health interfaces that are capable of providing personalized medication adherence interventions.