skip to main content

Title: Scattering amplitudes for monopoles: pairwise little group and pairwise helicity
A bstract On-shell methods are particularly suited for exploring the scattering of electrically and magnetically charged objects, for which there is no local and Lorentz invariant Lagrangian description. In this paper we show how to construct a Lorentz-invariant S -matrix for the scattering of electrically and magnetically charged particles, without ever having to refer to a Dirac string. A key ingredient is a revision of our fundamental understanding of multi-particle representations of the Poincaré group. Surprisingly, the asymptotic states for electric-magnetic scattering transform with an additional little group phase, associated with pairs of electrically and magnetically charged particles. The corresponding “pairwise helicity” is identified with the quantized “cross product” of charges, e 1 g 2 − e 2 g 1 , for every charge-monopole pair, and represents the extra angular momentum stored in the asymptotic electromagnetic field. We define a new kind of pairwise spinor-helicity variable, which serves as an additional building block for electric-magnetic scattering amplitudes. We then construct the most general 3-point S -matrix elements, as well as the full partial wave decomposition for the 2 → 2 fermion-monopole S -matrix. In particular, we derive the famous helicity flip in the lowest partial wave as a simple consequence more » of a generalized spin-helicity selection rule, as well as the full angular dependence for the higher partial waves. Our construction provides a significant new achievement for the on-shell program, succeeding where the Lagrangian description has so far failed. « less
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2014071 1915005
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of High Energy Physics
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. A bstract We report on the measurement of the Central Exclusive Production of charged particle pairs h + h − ( h = π, K, p ) with the STAR detector at RHIC in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 200 GeV. The charged particle pairs produced in the reaction pp → p ′ + h + h − + p ′ are reconstructed from the tracks in the central detector and identified using the specific energy loss and the time of flight method, while the forward-scattered protons are measured in the Roman Pot system. Exclusivity of the event is guaranteed by requiring the transverse momentum balance of all four final-state particles. Differential cross sections are measured as functions of observables related to the central hadronic final state and to the forward-scattered protons. They are measured in a fiducial region corresponding to the acceptance of the STAR detector and determined by the central particles’ transverse momenta and pseudorapidities as well as by the forward-scattered protons’ momenta. This fiducial region roughly corresponds to the square of the four-momentum transfers at the proton vertices in the range 0 . 04 GeV 2 < −t 1 , −t 2 < 0more ». 2 GeV 2 , invariant masses of the charged particle pairs up to a few GeV and pseudorapidities of the centrally-produced hadrons in the range |η| < 0 . 7. The measured cross sections are compared to phenomenological predictions based on the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) model. Structures observed in the mass spectra of π + π − and K + K − pairs are consistent with the DPE model, while angular distributions of pions suggest a dominant spin-0 contribution to π + π − production. For π + π − production, the fiducial cross section is extrapolated to the Lorentz-invariant region, which allows decomposition of the invariant mass spectrum into continuum and resonant contributions. The extrapolated cross section is well described by the continuum production and at least three resonances, the f 0 (980), f 2 (1270) and f 0 (1500), with a possible small contribution from the f 0 (1370). Fits to the extrapolated differential cross section as a function of t 1 and t 2 enable extraction of the exponential slope parameters in several bins of the invariant mass of π + π − pairs. These parameters are sensitive to the size of the interaction region.« less
  2. Abstract In order to elucidate the quantum ground state structure of nonrelativistic condensates, we explicitly construct the ground state wave function for multiple species of bosons, describing either superconductivity or superfluidity. Since each field Ψ j carries a phase θ j and the Lagrangian is invariant under rotations θ j  →  θ j  +  α j for independent α j , one can investigate the corresponding wave function overlap between a pair of ground states $\langle G\vert {G}^{\prime }\rangle $ differing by these phases. We operate in the infinite volume limit and use a particular prescription to define these states by utilizing the position space kernel and regulating the UV modes. We show that this overlap vanishes for most pairs of rotations, including θ j  →  θ j  +  m j   ϵ , where m j is the mass of each species, while it is unchanged under the transformation θ j  →  θ j  +  q j   ϵ , where q j is the charge of each species. We explain that this is consistent with the distinction between a superfluid, in which there is a nontrivial conserved number, and the superconductor, in which the electric field and conservedmore »charge is screened, while it is compatible with a nonzero order parameter in both cases. Moreover, we find that this bulk ground state wave function overlap directly reflects the Goldstone boson structure of the effective theory and provides a useful diagnostic of its physical phase.« less
  3. Abstract

    The matter in an accretion disk must lose angular momentum when moving radially inwards but how this works has long been a mystery. By calculating the trajectories of individual colliding neutrals, ions, and electrons in a weakly ionized 2D plasma containing gravitational and magnetic fields, we numerically simulate accretion disk dynamics at the particle level. As predicted by Lagrangian mechanics, the fundamental conserved global quantity is the total canonical angular momentum, not the ordinary angular momentum. When the Kepler angular velocity and the magnetic field have opposite polarity, collisions between neutrals and charged particles cause: (i) ions to move radially inwards, (ii) electrons to move radially outwards, (iii) neutrals to lose ordinary angular momentum, and (iv) charged particles to gain canonical angular momentum. Neutrals thus spiral inward due to their decrease of ordinary angular momentum while the accumulation of ions at small radius and accumulation of electrons at large radius produces a radially outward electric field. In 3D, this radial electric field would drive an out-of-plane poloidal current that produces the magnetic forces that drive bidirectional astrophysical jets. Because this neutral angular momentum loss depends only on neutrals colliding with charged particles, it should be ubiquitous. Quantitative scaling ofmore »the model using plausible disk density, temperature, and magnetic field strength gives an accretion rate of 3 × 10−8solar mass per year, which is in good agreement with observed accretion rates.

    « less
  4. Mathematical analysis of the well known model of a piezoelectric energy harvester is presented. The harvester is designed as a cantilever Timoshenko beam with piezoelectric layers attached to its top and bottom faces. Thin, perfectly conductive electrodes are covering the top and bottom faces of the piezoelectric layers. These electrodes are connected to a resistive load. The model is governed by a system of three partial differential equations. The first two of them are the equations of the Timoshenko beam model and the third one represents Kirchhoff’s law for the electric circuit. All equations are coupled due to the piezoelectric effect. We represent the system as a single operator evolution equation in the Hilbert state space of the system. The dynamics generator of this evolution equation is a non-selfadjoint matrix differential operator with compact resolvent. The paper has two main results. Both results are explicit asymptotic formulas for eigenvalues of this operator, i.e., the modal analysis for the electrically loaded system is performed. The first set of the asymptotic formulas has remainder terms of the order O ( 1 n ) , where n is the number of an eigenvalue. These formulas are derived for the model with variable physicalmore »parameters. The second set of the asymptotic formulas has remainder terms of the order O ( 1 n 2 ) , and is derived for a less general model with constant parameters. This second set of formulas contains extra term depending on the electromechanical parameters of the model. It is shown that the spectrum asymptotically splits into two disjoint subsets, which we call the α -branch eigenvalues and the θ -branch eigenvalues. These eigenvalues being multiplied by “i” produce the set of the vibrational modes of the system. The α -branch vibrational modes are asymptotically located on certain vertical line in the left half of the complex plane and the θ -branch is asymptotically close to the imaginary axis. By having such spectral and asymptotic results, one can derive the asymptotic representation for the mode shapes and for voltage output. Asymptotics of vibrational modes and mode shapes is instrumental in the analysis of control problems for the harvester.« less
  5. Abstract Magnetic reconnection is invoked as one of the primary mechanisms to produce energetic particles. We employ large-scale 3D particle-in-cell simulations of reconnection in magnetically dominated ( σ = 10) pair plasmas to study the energization physics of high-energy particles. We identify an acceleration mechanism that only operates in 3D. For weak guide fields, 3D plasmoids/flux ropes extend along the z -direction of the electric current for a length comparable to their cross-sectional radius. Unlike in 2D simulations, where particles are buried in plasmoids, in 3D we find that a fraction of particles with γ ≳ 3 σ can escape from plasmoids by moving along z , and so they can experience the large-scale fields in the upstream region. These “free” particles preferentially move in z along Speiser-like orbits sampling both sides of the layer and are accelerated linearly in time—their Lorentz factor scales as γ ∝ t , in contrast to γ ∝ t in 2D. The energy gain rate approaches ∼ eE rec c , where E rec ≃ 0.1 B 0 is the reconnection electric field and B 0 the upstream magnetic field. The spectrum of free particles is hard, dN free / d γ ∝ γmore »− 1.5 , contains ∼20% of the dissipated magnetic energy independently of domain size, and extends up to a cutoff energy scaling linearly with box size. Our results demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in GRB and AGN jets may be a promising mechanism for generating ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.« less