skip to main content

Title: Long-term behavior of precast, prestressed concrete sandwich panels reinforced with carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer shear grid
This paper documents the testing of six 20 ft × 4 ft × 8 in. (6.1 m × 1.2 m × 203.2 mm) precast, prestressed concrete sandwich panels constructed with continuous rigid insulation and a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer grid shear transfer mechanism. All panels were identical except for foam type and were cast together on the same prestressing bed. Three of the six panels were fabricated with expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam insulation, and the remaining three panels were fabricated using sandblasted extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam. For each group of three panels, one was tested to failure as a control and two others were cycled 2 million times to 45% of their design ultimate load before failure testing. The tested EPS panels all failed when the applied lateral load was greater than or equal to 100 lb/ft2 (4.79 kPa), which is 2.35 times their design load of 42.5 lb/ft2 (2.03 kPa). The tested XPS panels all failed at the equivalent of 175 lb/ft2 (8.38 kPa) of applied lateral pressure, which is more than 4.0 times their design load of 42.5 lb/ft2. All four panels subjected to fatigue survived 2 million reverse-cyclic lateral load cycles without any visible signs of degradation.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
PCI journal
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    During this study, full-size wood composite sandwich panels, 1.2 m by 2.4 m (4 ft by 8 ft), with a biaxial corrugated core were evaluated as a building construction material. Considering the applications of this new building material, including roof, floor, and wall paneling, sandwich panels with one and two corrugated core(s) were fabricated and experimentally evaluated. Since primary loads applied on these sandwich panels during their service life are live load, snow load, wind, and gravity loads, their bending and compression behavior were investigated. To improve the thermal characteristics, the cavities within the sandwich panels created by the corrugated geometry of the core were filled with a closed-cell foam. The R-values of the sandwich panels were measured to evaluate their energy performance. Comparison of the weight indicated that fabrication of a corrugated panel needs 74% less strands and, as a result, less resin compared to a strand-based composite panel, such as oriented strand board (OSB), of the same size and same density. Bending results revealed that one-layer core sandwich panels with floor applications under a 4.79 kPa (100 psf) bending load are able to meet the smallest deflection limit of L/360 when the span length (L) is 137.16 cm (54 in) or less. The ultimate capacity of two-layered core sandwich panels as a wall member was 94% and 158% higher than the traditional walls with studs under bending and axial compressive loads, respectively. Two-layered core sandwich panels also showed a higher ultimate capacity compared to structural insulated panels (SIP), at 470% and 235% more in bending and axial compression, respectively. Furthermore, normalized R-values, the thermal resistance, of these sandwich panels, even with the presence of thermal bridging due to the core geometry, was about 114% and 109% higher than plywood and oriented strand board, respectively. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Most undergraduate civil engineering programs include an introductory course in reinforced concrete design. The course generally includes an introduction to the fundamentals of reinforced concrete behavior, the design of simple beams and one-way slabs to resist shear and flexure, and the design of short columns. Because of the scale of typical civil engineering structures, students commonly do not get to experience large or full-scale structural behavior as a part of an undergraduate reinforced concrete course. Rather, students typically learn fundamental concepts through theoretical discussions, small demonstrations, or pictures and images. Without the interaction with full-scale structural members, students can struggle to develop a clear understanding of the fundamental behavior of these systems such as the differences in behavior of an over or under-reinforced beam. Additionally, students do not build an appreciation for the variations between as-built versus theoretical designs. Large-scale models can illustrate such behavior and enhance student understanding, but most civil engineering programs lack the physical equipment to perform testing at this scale. The authors from St. Louis University (SLU) and Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (RHIT) have designed and implemented large-scale tests for in-class use that allow students to experience fundamental reinforced concrete behavior. Students design and test several reinforced concrete members using a modular strong-block testing system. This paper provides a detailed overview of the design, fabrication, and implementation of three large-scale experiential learning modules for an undergraduate reinforced concrete design course. The first module focuses on service load and deflections of a reinforced concrete beam. The first and second modules also focus on flexural failure modes and ductility. The third module focuses on shear design and failure modes. Each module uses a large scale reinforced concrete beam (Flexure specimens: 12 in. x 14 in. x 19 ft, Shear specimens: 12 in. x 14 in. x 10 ft.) that was tested on a modular strong-block testing system. The three modules were used throughout the reinforced concrete design course at SLU and RHIT to illustrate behavior concurrent to the presentation of various reinforced concrete design concepts. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract Profiled hollow core sandwich panels (SPs) and their components (outer layers and core) were manufactured with ponderosa and lodgepole pine wood strands to determine the effects of low-velocity impact forces and to observe their energy absorption (EA) capacities and failure modes. An instrumented drop weight impact system was applied and the tests were performed by releasing the impact head from 500 mm for all the specimens while the impactors (IMPs) were equipped with hemispherical and flat head cylindrical heads. SPs with cavities filled with a rigid foam insulation material (SP foam ) were also tested to understand the change in EA behavior and failure mode. Failure modes induced by both IMPs to SPs were found to be splitting, perforating, penetrating, core crushing and debonding between the core and the outer layers. SP foam s absorbed 26% more energy than unfilled SPs. SP foam s with urethane foam suffer less severe failure modes than SPs. SPs in a ridge-loading configuration absorbed more impact energy than those in a valley-loading configuration, especially when impacted by a hemispherical IMP. Based on the results, it is evident that sandwich structure is more efficient than a solid panel concerning impact energy absorption, primarily due to a larger elastic section modulus of the core’s corrugated geometry. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The composite sandwich structures with foam core and fiber-reinforced polymer skin are prone to damage under local impact. The mechanical behavior of sandwich panels (glass fiber-reinforced polymer [GFRP] skin reinforced with lattice webs and syntactic foams core) is studied under crushing load. The crushing behavior, failure modes, and energy absorption are correlated with the number of GFRP layers in facesheets and webs, fiber volume fractions of facesheets in both longitudinal and transverse directions, and density and thickness of syntactic foam. The test results revealed that increasing the number of FRP layers of lattice webs was an effective way to enhance the energy absorption of sandwich panels without remarkable increase in the peak load. Moreover, a three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model was developed to simulate the mechanical behavior of the syntactic foam sandwich panels, and the numerical results were compared with the experimental results. Then, the verified FE model was applied to conduct extensive parametric studies. Finally, based on experimental and numerical results, the optimal design of syntactic foam sandwich structures as energy absorption members was obtained. This study provides theoretical basis and design reference of a novel syntactic foam sandwich structure for applications in bridge decks, ship decks, carriages, airframes, wall panels, anticollision guard rails and bumpers, and railway sleepers. 
    more » « less
  5. INTRODUCTION: In practice, the use of a whip stitch versus a locking stitch in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft preparation is based on surgeon preference. Those who prefer efficiency and shorter stitch time typically choose a whip stitch, while those who require improved biomechanical properties select a locking stitch, the gold standard of which is the Krackow method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel suture needle design that can be used to perform two commonly used stitch methods, a whip stitch, and a locking stitch, by comparing the speed of graft preparation and biomechanical properties. It was hypothesized that adding a locking mechanism to the whip stitch would improve biomechanical performance but would also require more time to complete due to additional steps required for the locking technique. METHODS: Graft preparation was performed by four orthopaedic surgeons of different training levels where User 1 and User 2 were both attendings and User’s 3 and 4 were both fellows. A total of 24 matched pair cadaveric knees were dissected and a total of 48 semitendinosus tendons were harvested. All grafts were standardized to the same size. Tendons were randomly divided into 4 groups (12 tendons per group) such that each User performed analogous stitch on matched pair: Group 1, User 1 and User 3 performed whip stitches; Group 2, User 1 and User 3 performed locking stitches; Group 3, User 2 and User 4 performed whip stitches; Group 4, User 2 and User 4 performed locking stitches. For instrumentation, the two ends of tendon grafts were clamped to a preparation stand. A skin marker was used to mark five evenly spaced points, 0.5 cm apart, as a guide to create a 5-stitch series. The stitches were performed with EasyWhip, a novel two-part suture needle which allows one to do both a traditional whip stitch and a locking whip stitch, referred to as WhipLock (Figure 1). The speed for graft preparation was timed for each User. Biomechanical testing was performed using a servohydraulic testing machine (MTS Bionix) equipped with a 5kN load cell (Figure 2). A standardized length of tendon, 10 cm, was coupled to the MTS actuator by passing it through a cryoclamp cooled by dry ice to a temperature of -5°C. All testing samples were pre-conditioned to normalize viscoelastic effects and testing variability through application of cyclical loading to 25-100 N for three cycles. The samples were then held at 89 N for 15 minutes. Thereafter, the samples were loaded to 50-200 N for 500 cycles at 1 Hz. If samples survived, they were ramped to failure at 20 mm/min. Displacement and force data was collected throughout testing. Metrics of interest were peak-to-peak displacement (mm), stiffness (N/mm), ultimate failure load (N) and failure mode. Data are presented as averages and standard deviations. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate the groups for time to complete stitch and biomechanical performance. Statistical significance was set at P = .05. RESULTS SECTION: In Group 1, the time to complete the whip stitch was not significantly different between User 1 and User 3, where the average completion time was 1 min 13 sec. Similarly, there were no differences between Users when performing the WhipLock (Group 2) with an average time of 1 min 49 sec. In Group 3 (whip stitch), User 2 took 1 min 48 sec to complete the whip stitch, whereas User 4 took 1 min 25 sec (p=.033). The time to complete the WhipLock stitch (Group 4) was significantly different, where User 2 took 3 min and 44 sec, while User 4 only took 2 min 3 sec (p=.002). Overall, the whip stitch took on average 1 min 25 sec whereas the WhipLock took 2 min 20 sec (p=.001). For whip stitch constructs, no differences were found between Users and all stitches were biomechanically equivalent. Correspondingly, for WhipLock stitches, no differences were found between Users and all suture constructs were likewise biomechanically equivalent. Averages for peak-to-peak displacement (mm), stiffness (N/mm), and ultimate failure load (N) are presented in Table 1. Moreover, when the two stitch methods were compared, the WhipLock constructs significantly increased stiffness by 25% (p <.001), increased ultimate failure load by 35% (p<.001) and reduced peak-to-peak displacement by 55% (p=.001). The common mode of failure for grafts with whip stitch failed by suture pullout from tendon (18/24), where a few instances occurred by suture breakage (6/24). Tendon grafts with WhipLock stitch commonly failed by suture breakage (22/24), where two instances of combined tendon tear and suture breakage were noted. DISCUSSION: The WhipLock stitch significantly increased average construct stiffness and ultimate failure load, while significantly reducing the peak-to- peak displacement compared to the whip stitch. These added strength benefits of the WhipLock stitch took 55 seconds more to complete than the whip stitch. No statistically significant difference in biomechanical performance was found between the Users. Data suggests equivalent stitch performance regardless of the time to complete stitch and surgeon training level. SIGNIFICANCE/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clinically, having a suture needle device available which can be used to easily perform different constructs including one with significant strength advantages regardless of level of experience is of benefit. 
    more » « less