skip to main content

Title: Smoothed Adaptive Weighting for Imbalanced Semi-Supervised Learning: Improve Reliability Against Unknown Distribution Data
Despite recent promising results on semi-supervised learning (SSL), data imbalance, particularly in the unlabeled dataset, could significantly impact the training performance of a SSL algorithm if there is a mismatch between the expected and actual class distributions. The efforts on how to construct a robust SSL framework that can effectively learn from datasets with unknown distributions remain limited. We first investigate the feasibility of adding weights to the consistency loss and then we verify the necessity of smoothed weighting schemes. Based on this study, we propose a self-adaptive algorithm, named Smoothed Adaptive Weighting (SAW). SAW is designed to enhance the robustness of SSL by estimating the learning difficulty of each class and synthesizing the weights in the consistency loss based on such estimation. We show that SAW can complement recent consistency-based SSL algorithms and improve their reliability on various datasets including three standard datasets and one gigapixel medical imaging application without making any assumptions about the distribution of the unlabeled set.
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of Machine Learning Research
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
11828 - 11843
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is a key approach toward more data-efficient machine learning by jointly leverage both labeled and unlabeled data. We propose AlphaMatch, an efficient SSL method that leverages data augmentations, by efficiently enforcing the label consistency between the data points and the augmented data derived from them. Our key technical contribution lies on: 1) using alpha-divergence to prioritize the regularization on data with high confidence, achieving a similar effect as FixMatch but in a more flexible fashion, and 2) proposing an optimization-based, EM-like algorithm to enforce the consistency, which enjoys better convergence than iterative regularization procedures used in recent SSL methods such as FixMatch, UDA, and MixMatch. AlphaMatch is simple and easy to implement, and consistently outperforms prior arts on standard benchmarks, e.g. CIFAR-10, SVHN, CIFAR-100, STL-10. Specifically, we achieve 91.3 data per class, substantially improving over the previously best 88.7 achieved by FixMatch.
  2. Automated segmentation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in gigapixel histopathology images is advantageous to analyzing distributions of disease pathologies, further aiding in neuropathologic deep phenotyping. Although supervised deep learning methods have shown good performance, its requirement of a large amount of labeled data may not be cost-effective for large scale projects. In the case of GM/WM segmentation, trained experts need to carefully trace the delineation in gigapixel images. To minimize manual labeling, we consider semi-surprised learning (SSL) and deploy one state-of-the-art SSL method (FixMatch) on WSIs. Then we propose a two-stage scheme to further improve the performance of SSL: the first stage is a self-supervised module to train an encoder to learn the visual representations of unlabeled data, subsequently, this well-trained encoder will be an initialization of consistency loss-based SSL in the second stage. We test our method on Amyloid-β stained histopathology images and the results outperform FixMatch with the mean IoU score at around 2% by using 6,000 labeled tiles while over 10% by using only 600 labeled tiles from 2 WSIs.Clinical relevance— this work minimizes the required labeling efforts by trained personnel. An improved GM/WM segmentation method could further aid in the study of brainmore »diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease.« less
  3. In machine learning, we often face the situation where the event we are interested in has very few data points buried in a massive amount of data. This is typical in network monitoring, where data are streamed from sensing or measuring units continuously but most data are not for events. With imbalanced datasets, the classifiers tend to be biased in favor of the main class. Rare event detection has received much attention in machine learning, and yet it is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a remedy for the standing problem. Weighting and sampling are two fundamental approaches to address the problem. We focus on the weighting method in this paper. We first propose a boosting-style algorithm to compute class weights, which is proved to have excellent theoretical property. Then we propose an adaptive algorithm, which is suitable for real-time applications. The adaptive nature of the two algorithms allows a controlled tradeoff between true positive rate and false positive rate and avoids excessive weight on the rare class, which leads to poor performance on the main class. Experiments on power grid data and some public datasets show that the proposed algorithms outperform the existing weighting and boostingmore »methods, and that their superiority is more noticeable with noisy data.« less
  4. Collecting large-scale medical datasets with fully annotated samples for training of deep networks is prohibitively expensive, especially for 3D volume data. Recent breakthroughs in self-supervised learning (SSL) offer the ability to overcome the lack of labeled training samples by learning feature representations from unlabeled data. However, most current SSL techniques in the medical field have been designed for either 2D images or 3D volumes. In practice, this restricts the capability to fully leverage unlabeled data from numerous sources, which may include both 2D and 3D data. Additionally, the use of these pre-trained networks is constrained to downstream tasks with compatible data dimensions.In this paper, we propose a novel framework for unsupervised joint learning on 2D and 3D data modalities. Given a set of 2D images or 2D slices extracted from 3D volumes, we construct an SSL task based on a 2D contrastive clustering problem for distinct classes. The 3D volumes are exploited by computing vectored embedding at each slice and then assembling a holistic feature through deformable self-attention mechanisms in Transformer, allowing incorporating long-range dependencies between slices inside 3D volumes. These holistic features are further utilized to define a novel 3D clustering agreement-based SSL task and masking embedding prediction inspiredmore »by pre-trained language models. Experiments on downstream tasks, such as 3D brain segmentation, lung nodule detection, 3D heart structures segmentation, and abnormal chest X-ray detection, demonstrate the effectiveness of our joint 2D and 3D SSL approach. We improve plain 2D Deep-ClusterV2 and SwAV by a significant margin and also surpass various modern 2D and 3D SSL approaches.« less
  5. The need for manual and detailed annotations limits the applicability of supervised deep learning algorithms in medical image analyses, specifically in the field of pathology. Semi-supervised learning (SSL) provides an effective way for leveraging unlabeled data to relieve the heavy reliance on the amount of labeled samples when training a model. Although SSL has shown good performance, the performance of recent state-of-the-art SSL methods on pathology images is still under study. The problem for selecting the most optimal data to label for SSL is not fully explored. To tackle this challenge, we propose a semi-supervised active learning framework with a region-based selection criterion. This framework iteratively selects regions for an-notation query to quickly expand the diversity and volume of the labeled set. We evaluate our framework on a grey-matter/white-matter segmentation problem using gigapixel pathology images from autopsied human brain tissues. With only 0.1% regions labeled, our proposed algorithm can reach a competitive IoU score compared to fully-supervised learning and outperform the current state-of-the-art SSL by more than 10% of IoU score and DICE coefficient.