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Title: Volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections and aerosol optical depth during the Holocene (past 11 500 years) from a bipolar ice-core array
Abstract. The injection of sulfur into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions is thedominant driver of natural climate variability oninterannual to multidecadal timescales. Based on a set of continuous sulfateand sulfur records from a suite of ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica,the HolVol v.1.0 database includes estimates of the magnitudes andapproximate source latitudes of major volcanic stratospheric sulfurinjection (VSSI) events for the Holocene (from 9500 BCE or 11 500 years BP to1900 CE), constituting an extension of the previous record by 7000 years.The database incorporates new-generation ice-core aerosol records with asub-annual temporal resolution and a demonstrated sub-decadal dating accuracyand precision. By tightly aligning and stacking the ice-core records on theWD2014 chronology from Antarctica, we resolve long-standing inconsistenciesin the dating of ancient volcanic eruptions that arise from biased (i.e.,dated too old) ice-core chronologies over the Holocene for Greenland. Wereconstruct a total of 850 volcanic eruptions with injections in excess of 1 teragram of sulfur (Tg S); of these eruptions, 329 (39 %) are located in the low latitudes with bipolarsulfate deposition, 426 (50 %) are located in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics (NHET) and 88 (10 %) are located in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics (SHET). The spatial distribution of the reconstructed eruption locationsis in agreement with prior reconstructions for the past 2500 years. Intotal, more » these eruptions injected 7410 Tg S into thestratosphere: 70 % from tropical eruptions and 25 % from NHextratropical eruptions. A long-term latitudinally and monthly resolvedstratospheric aerosol optical depth (SAOD) time series is reconstructed fromthe HolVol VSSI estimates, representing the first Holocene-scalereconstruction constrained by Greenland and Antarctica ice cores. These newlong-term reconstructions of past VSSI and SAOD variability confirm evidencefrom regional volcanic eruption chronologies (e.g., from Iceland) in showingthat the Early Holocene (9500–7000 BCE) experienced a higher number ofvolcanic eruptions (+16 %) and cumulative VSSI (+86 %) compared withthe past 2500 years. This increase coincides with the rapid retreat of icesheets during deglaciation, providing context for potential future increasesin volcanic activity in regions under projected glacier melting in the 21stcentury. The reconstructed VSSI and SAOD data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.928646 (Sigl et al., 2021). « less
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1925417
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10349905
Journal Name:
Earth System Science Data
Volume:
14
Issue:
7
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
3167 to 3196
ISSN:
1866-3516
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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