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Title: Partial, Zombie, and Full Tidal Disruption of Stars by Supermassive Black Holes
Abstract We present long-duration numerical simulations of the tidal disruption of stars modeled with accurate stellar structures and spanning a range of pericenter distances, corresponding to cases where the stars are partially and completely disrupted. We substantiate the prediction that the late-time power-law index of the fallback rate n ∞ ≃ −5/3 for full disruptions, while for partial disruptions—in which the central part of the star survives the tidal encounter intact—we show that n ∞ ≃ −9/4. For the subset of simulations where the pericenter distance is close to that which delineates full from partial disruption, we find that a stellar core can reform after the star has been completely destroyed; for these events the energy of the zombie core is slightly positive, which results in late-time evolution from n ≃ −9/4 to n ≃ −5/3. We find that self-gravity can generate an n ( t ) that deviates from n ∞ by a small but significant amount for several years post-disruption. In one specific case with the stellar pericenter near the critical value, we find that self-gravity also drives the recollapse of the central regions of the debris stream into a collection of several cores while the rest of more » the stream remains relatively smooth. We also show that it is possible for the surviving stellar core in a partial disruption to acquire a circumstellar disk that is shed from the rapidly rotating core. Finally, we provide a novel analytical fitting function for the fallback rates that may also be useful in a range of contexts beyond tidal disruption events. « less
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The Astrophysical Journal
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National Science Foundation
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