As intelligent systems gain autonomy and capability, it becomes vital to ensure that their objectives match those of their human users; this is known as the value-alignment problem. In robotics, value alignment is key to the design of collaborative robots that can integrate into human workflows, successfully inferring and adapting to their users’ objectives as they go.We argue that a meaningful solution to value alignment must combine multi-agent decision theory with rich mathematical models of human cognition, enabling robots to tap into people’s natural collaborative capabilities. We present a solution to the cooperative inverse reinforcement learning (CIRL) dynamic game based on well-established cognitive models of decision making and theory of mind. The solution captures a key reciprocity relation: the human will not plan her actions in isolation, but rather reason pedagogically about how the robot might learn from them; the robot, in turn, can anticipate this and interpret the human’s actions pragmatically. To our knowledge, this work constitutes the first formal analysis of value alignment grounded in empirically validated cognitive models.
In situ bidirectional human-robot value alignment.
A prerequisite for social coordination is bidirectional communication between teammates, each playing two roles simultaneously: as receptive listeners and expressive speakers. For robots working with humans in complex situations with multiple goals that differ in importance, failure to fulfill the expectation of either role could undermine group performance due to misalignment of values between humans and robots. Specifically, a robot needs to serve as an effective listener to infer human users’ intents from instructions and feedback and as an expressive speaker to explain its decision processes to users. Here, we investigate how to foster effective bidirectional human-robot communications in the context of value alignment—collaborative robots and users form an aligned understanding of the importance of possible task goals. We propose an explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) system in which a group of robots predicts users’ values by taking in situ feedback into consideration while communicating their decision processes to users through explanations. To learn from human feedback, our XAI system integrates a cooperative communication model for inferring human values associated with multiple desirable goals. To be interpretable to humans, the system simulates human mental dynamics and predicts optimal explanations using graphical models. We conducted psychological experiments to examine the core components of more »
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- Science robotics
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