skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 9, 2022

Title: Toward Automated Analysis of Fetal Phonocardiograms: Comparing Heartbeat Detection from Fetal Doppler and Digital Stethoscope Signals
Longitudinal fetal health monitoring is essential for high-risk pregnancies. Heart rate and heart rate variability are prime indicators of fetal health. In this work, we implemented two neural network architectures for heartbeat detection on a set of fetal phonocardiogram signals captured using fetal Doppler and a digital stethoscope. We test the efficacy of these networks using the raw signals and the hand-crafted energy from the signal. The results show a Convolutional Neural Network is the most efficient at identifying the S1 waveforms in a heartbeat, and its performance is improved when using the energy of the Doppler signals. We further discuss issues, such as low Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR), present in the training of a model based on the stethoscope signals. Finally, we show that we can improve the SNR, and subsequently the performance of the stethoscope, by matching the energy from the stethoscope to that of the Doppler signal.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1915599
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10351531
Journal Name:
International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
975 to 979
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Monitoring of fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) would provide useful information about fetal wellbeing as well as any abnormal development during pregnancy. Recent advances in flexible electronics and wearable technologies have enabled compact devices to acquire personal physiological signals in the home setting, including those of expectant mothers. However, the high noise level in the daily life renders long-entrenched challenges to extract fECG from the combined fetal/maternal ECG signal recorded in the abdominal area of the mother. Thus, an efficient fECG extraction scheme is a dire need. In this work, we intensively explored various extraction algorithms, including template subtraction (TS), independent component analysis (ICA), and extended Kalman filter (EKF) using the data from the PhysioNet 2013 Challenge. Furthermore, the modified data with Gaussian and motion noise added, mimicking a practical scenario, were utilized to examine the performance of algorithms. Finally, we combined different algorithms together, yielding promising results, with the best performance in the F1 score of 92.61% achieved by an algorithm combining ICA and TS. With the data modified by adding different types of noise, the combination of ICA–TS–ICA showed the highest F1 score of 85.4%. It should be noted that these combined approaches required higher computational complexity, including execution timemore »and allocated memory compared with other methods. Owing to comprehensive examination through various evaluation metrics in different extraction algorithms, this study provides insights into the implementation and operation of state-of-the-art fetal and maternal monitoring systems in the era of mobile health.« less
  2. Vital signs (e.g., heart and respiratory rate) are indicative for health status assessment. Efforts have been made to extract vital signs using radio frequency (RF) techniques (e.g., Wi-Fi, FMCW, UWB), which offer a non-touch solution for continuous and ubiquitous monitoring without users’ cooperative efforts. While RF-based vital signs monitoring is user-friendly, its robustness faces two challenges. On the one hand, the RF signal is modulated by the periodic chest wall displacement due to heartbeat and breathing in a nonlinear manner. It is inherently hard to identify the fundamental heart and respiratory rates (HR and RR) in the presence of higher order harmonics of them and intermodulation between HR and RR, especially when they have overlapping frequency bands. On the other hand, the inadvertent body movements may disturb and distort the RF signal, overwhelming the vital signals, thus inhibiting the parameter estimation of the physiological movement (i.e., heartbeat and breathing). In this paper, we propose DeepVS, a deep learning approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges from the non-linearity and inadvertent movements for robust RF-based vital signs sensing in a unified manner. DeepVS combines 1D CNN and attention models to exploit local features and temporal correlations. Moreover, it leverages a two-stream schememore »to integrate features from both time and frequency domains. Additionally, DeepVS unifies the estimation of HR and RR with a multi-head structure, which only adds limited extra overhead (<1%) to the existing model, compared to doubling the overhead using two separate models for HR and RR respectively. Our experiments demonstrate that DeepVS achieves 80-percentile HR/RR errors of 7.4/4.9 beat/breaths per minute (bpm) on a challenging dataset, as compared to 11.8/7.3 bpm of a non-learning solution. Besides, an ablation study has been conducted to quantify the effectiveness of DeepVS.« less
  3. Fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) assessment is essential throughout pregnancy to monitor the wellbeing and development of the fetus, and to possibly diagnose potential congenital heart defects. Due to the high noise incorporated in the abdominal ECG (aECG) signals, the extraction of fECG has been challenging. And it is even a lot more difficult for fECG extraction if only one channel of aECG is provided, i.e., in a compact patch device. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on the Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for non-invasive fECG extraction from a single-channel aECG signal. To assess the performance of the proposed algorithm, we used our own clinical data, obtained from a pilot study with 10 subjects each of 20 min recording, and data from the PhysioNet 2013 Challenge bank with labeled QRS complex annotations. The proposed methodology shows the average positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.59%, sensitivity (SE) of 96.91%, and F1-score of 97.25% from the PhysioNet 2013 Challenge bank. Our results also indicate that the proposed algorithm is reliable and effective, and it outperforms the recently proposed extended Kalman filter (EKF) based algorithm.
  4. Electrocardiography (ECG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the human heart over time using electrodes that are placed over the skin. While the primary usage of electrocardiograms, the recorded signals, has been focused on the check of signs of heart-related diseases, recent studies have moved also toward their usage for human authentication. Thus, an ECG signal can be unique enough to be used independently as a biometric modality. In addition to its inherent liveness detection, it is easy to collect and can be easily captured either via sensors attached to the human body (fingertips, chest, wrist) or even passively using wireless sensors. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that exploits the spectro-temporal dynamic characteristics of the ECG signal to establish personal recognition system using both short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and generalized Morse wavelets (CWT). This process results in enriching the information extracted from the original ECG signal that is inserted in a 2D convolutional neural network (CNN) which extracts higher level and subject-specific ECG-based features for each individual. To validate our proposed CNN model, we performed nested cross-validation using eight different ECG databases. These databases are considered challenging since they include both normal and abnormalmore »heartbeats as well as a dynamic number of subjects. Our proposed algorithms yield superior performance when compared to other state-ofart approaches discussed in the literature, i.e. the STFT-based one achieves an average identification rate, equal error rate (EER), and area under curve (AUC) of 97.86%, 0.0268, and 0.9933 respectively, whereas the CWT achieves comparable to STFT results in 97.5%, 0.0386, and 0.9882 respectively.« less
  5. A number of algorithms have been developed to extract heart rate from physiological motion data using Doppler radar system. Yet, it is very challenging to eliminate noise associated with surroundings, especially with a single-channel Doppler radar system. However, single-channel Doppler radars provide the advantage of operating at lower power. Additionally, heart rate extraction using single-channel Doppler radar has remained somewhat unexplored. This has motivated the development of effective signal processing algorithms for signals received from single-channel Doppler radars. Three algorithms have been studied for estimating heart rate. The first algorithm is based on applying FFT on an FIR filtered signal. In the second algorithm, autocorrelation was performed on the filtered data. Thirdly, a peak finding algorithm was used in conjunction with a moving average preceded by a clipper to determine the heart rate. The results obtained were compared with heart rate readings from a pulse oximeter. With a mean difference of 2.6 bpm, the heart rate from Doppler radar matched that from the pulse oximeter most frequently when the peak finding algorithm was used. The results obtained using autocorrelation and peak finding algorithm (with standard deviations of 2.6 bpm and 4.0 bpm) suggest that a single channel Doppler radar systemmore »can be a viable alternative to contact heart rate monitors in patients for whom contact measurements are not feasible.« less