- NSF-PAR ID:
- Author(s) / Creator(s):
- ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 2777 to 2797
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Abstract We present panchromatic observations and modeling of supernova (SN) 2020tlf, the first normal Type II-P/L SN with confirmed precursor emission, as detected by the Young Supernova Experiment transient survey. Pre-SN activity was detected in riz -bands at −130 days and persisted at relatively constant flux until first light. Soon after discovery, “flash” spectroscopy of SN 2020tlf revealed narrow, symmetric emission lines that resulted from the photoionization of circumstellar material (CSM) shed in progenitor mass-loss episodes before explosion. Surprisingly, this novel display of pre-SN emission and associated mass loss occurred in a red supergiant (RSG) progenitor with zero-age main-sequence mass of only 10–12 M ⊙ , as inferred from nebular spectra. Modeling of the light curve and multi-epoch spectra with the non-LTE radiative-transfer code CMFGEN and radiation-hydrodynamical code HERACLES suggests a dense CSM limited to r ≈ 10 15 cm, and mass-loss rate of 10 −2 M ⊙ yr −1 . The luminous light-curve plateau and persistent blue excess indicates an extended progenitor, compatible with an RSG model with R ⋆ = 1100 R ⊙ . Limits on the shock-powered X-ray and radio luminosity are consistent with model conclusions and suggest a CSM density of ρ < 2 × 10 −16 g cm −3 for distances from the progenitor star of r ≈ 5 × 10 15 cm, as well as a mass-loss rate of M ̇ < 1.3 × 10 − 5 M ☉ yr − 1 at larger distances. A promising power source for the observed precursor emission is the ejection of stellar material following energy disposition into the stellar envelope as a result of gravity waves emitted during either neon/oxygen burning or a nuclear flash from silicon combustion.more » « less
We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the nearby (
D≈ 28 Mpc) interacting supernova (SN) 2019esa, discovered within hours of explosion and serendipitously observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Early, high-cadence light curves from both TESS and the DLT40 survey tightly constrain the time of explosion, and show a 30 day rise to maximum light followed by a near-constant linear decline in luminosity. Optical spectroscopy over the first 40 days revealed a reddened object with narrow Balmer emission lines seen in Type IIn SNe. The slow rise to maximum in the optical light curve combined with the lack of broad H αemission suggest the presence of very optically thick and close circumstellar material (CSM) that quickly decelerated the SN ejecta. This CSM was likely created from a massive star progenitor with an ∼ 0.2 M☉yr−1lost in a previous eruptive episode 3–4 yr before eruption, similar to giant eruptions of luminous blue variable stars. At late times, strong intermediate-width Ca ii, Fe i, and Fe iilines are seen in the optical spectra, identical to those seen in the superluminous interacting SN 2006gy. The strong CSM interaction masks the underlying explosion mechanism in SN 2019esa, but the combination of the luminosity, strength of the H αlines, and mass-loss rate of the progenitor seem to be inconsistent with a Type Ia CSM model and instead point to a core-collapse origin.
We present a series of ground-based photometry and spectroscopy of the superluminous Type IIn supernova (SN) ASASSN-15ua, which shows evidence for strong interaction with pre-existing dense circumstellar material (CSM). Our observations constrain the speed, mass-loss rate, and extent of the progenitor wind shortly before explosion. A narrow P Cygni absorption component reveals a progenitor wind speed of ∼100 km s−1. As observed in previous SNe IIn, the intermediate-width H α emission became more asymmetric and blueshifted over time, suggesting either asymmetric CSM, an asymmetric explosion, or increasing selective extinction from dust within the post-shock shell or SN ejecta. Based on the CSM radius and speed, we find that the progenitor suffered extreme eruptive mass-loss with a rate of 0.1–1 M⊙ yr−1 during the ∼12 yr immediately before the death of the star that imparted ∼ 1048 erg of kinetic energy to the CSM. Integrating its V-band light curve over the first 170 d after discovery, we find that ASASSN-15ua radiated at least 3 × 1050 erg in visual light alone, giving a lower limit to the total radiated energy that may have approached 1051 erg. ASASSN-15ua exhibits many similarities to two well-studied superluminous SNe IIn: SN 2006tf and SN 2010jl. Based on a detailed comparison of these three, we find that ASASSN-15ua falls in between these two events in a wide variety of observed properties and derived physical parameters, illustrating a continuum of behaviour across superluminous SNe IIn.
Abstract We present high-cadence optical, ultraviolet (UV), and near-infrared data of the nearby ( D ≈ 23 Mpc) Type II supernova (SN) 2021yja. Many Type II SNe show signs of interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) during the first few days after explosion, implying that their red supergiant (RSG) progenitors experience episodic or eruptive mass loss. However, because it is difficult to discover SNe early, the diversity of CSM configurations in RSGs has not been fully mapped. SN 2021yja, first detected within ≈ 5.4 hours of explosion, shows some signatures of CSM interaction (high UV luminosity and radio and x-ray emission) but without the narrow emission lines or early light-curve peak that can accompany CSM. Here we analyze the densely sampled early light curve and spectral series of this nearby SN to infer the properties of its progenitor and CSM. We find that the most likely progenitor was an RSG with an extended envelope, encompassed by low-density CSM. We also present archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the host galaxy of SN 2021yja, which allows us to place a stringent upper limit of ≲ 9 M ☉ on the progenitor mass. However, this is in tension with some aspects of the SN evolution, which point to a more massive progenitor. Our analysis highlights the need to consider progenitor structure when making inferences about CSM properties, and that a comprehensive view of CSM tracers should be made to give a fuller view of the last years of RSG evolution.more » « less
A growing number of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) that show evidence for interaction with dense circumstellar medium (CSM) are accompanied by “precursor” optical emission rising weeks to months prior to the explosion. The precursor luminosities greatly exceed the Eddington limit of the progenitor star, implying that they are accompanied by substantial mass loss. Here, we present a semi-analytic model for SN precursor light curves, which we apply to constrain the properties and mechanisms of the pre-explosion mass loss. We explore two limiting mass-loss scenarios: (1) an “eruption” arising from shock breakout following impulsive energy deposition below the stellar surface; and (2) a steady “wind,” due to sustained heating of the progenitor envelope. The eruption model, which resembles a scaled-down version of Type IIP SNe, can explain the luminosities and timescales of well-sampled precursors, for ejecta masses ∼ 0.1–1
M⊙and velocities ∼ 100–1000 km s−1. By contrast, the steady wind scenario cannot explain the highest precursor luminosities ≳ 1041erg s−1, under the constraint that the total ejecta mass does not exceed the entire progenitor mass (though the less luminous SN 2020tlf precursor can be explained by a mass-loss rate ∼ 1 M⊙yr−1). However, shock interaction between the wind and pre-existing (earlier ejected) CSM may boost its radiative efficiency and mitigate this constraint. In both the eruption and wind scenarios, the precursor ejecta forms compact (≲1015cm) optically thick CSM at the time of core collapse; though only directly observable via rapid post-explosion spectroscopy (≲ a few days before being overtaken by the SN ejecta), this material can boost the SN luminosity via shock interaction.