skip to main content

Title: Modulation theory for soliton resonance and Mach reflection
Resonant Y-shaped soliton solutions to the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili II (KPII) equation are modelled as shock solutions to an infinite family of modulation conservation laws. The fully two-dimensional soliton modulation equations, valid in the zero dispersion limit of the KPII equation, are demonstrated to reduce to a one-dimensional system. In this same limit, the rapid transition from the larger Y soliton stem to the two smaller legs limits to a travelling discontinuity. This discontinuity is a multivalued, weak solution satisfying modified Rankine–Hugoniot jump conditions for the one-dimensional modulation equations. These results are applied to analytically describe the dynamics of the Mach reflection problem, V-shaped initial conditions that correspond to a soliton incident upon an inward oblique corner. Modulation theory results show excellent agreement with direct KPII numerical simulation.
; ;
Award ID(s):
1816934 2009487
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract The interaction of an oblique line soliton with a one-dimensional dynamic mean flow is analyzed using the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili II (KPII) equation. Building upon previous studies that examined the transmission or trapping of a soliton by a slowly varying rarefaction or oscillatory dispersive shock wave (DSW) in one space and one time dimension, this paper allows for the incident soliton to approach the changing mean flow at a nonzero oblique angle. By deriving invariant quantities of the soliton–mean flow modulation equations—a system of three (1 + 1)-dimensional quasilinear, hyperbolic equations for the soliton and mean flow parameters—and positing the initial configuration as a Riemann problem in the modulation variables, it is possible to derive quantitative predictions regarding the evolution of the line soliton within the mean flow. It is found that the interaction between an oblique soliton and a changing mean flow leads to several novel features not observed in the (1 + 1)-dimensional reduced problem. Many of these interesting dynamics arise from the unique structure of the modulation equations that are nonstrictly hyperbolic, including a well-defined multivalued solution interpreted as a solution of the (2 + 1)-dimensional soliton–mean modulation equations, in which the soliton interacts with the mean flowmore »and then wraps around to interact with it again. Finally, it is shown that the oblique interactions between solitons and DSW solutions for the mean flow give rise to all three possible types of two-soliton solutions of the KPII equation. The analytical findings are quantitatively supported by direct numerical simulations.« less
  2. The dynamics of initially truncated and bent line solitons for the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KPII) equation modelling internal and surface gravity waves is analysed using modulation theory. In contrast to previous studies on obliquely interacting solitons that develop from acute incidence angles, this work focuses on initial value problems for the obtuse incidence of two or three partial line solitons, which propagate away from one another. Despite counterpropagation, significant residual soliton interactions are observed with novel physical consequences. The initial value problem for a truncated line soliton – describing the emergence of a quasi-one-dimensional soliton from a wide channel – is shown to be related to the interaction of oblique solitons. Analytical descriptions for the development of weak and strong interactions are obtained in terms of interacting simple wave solutions of modulation equations for the local soliton amplitude and slope. In the weak interaction case, the long-time evolution of truncated and large obtuse angle solitons exhibits a decaying, parabolic wave profile with temporally increasing focal length that asymptotes to a cylindrical Korteweg–de Vries soliton. In contrast, the strong interaction case of slightly obtuse interacting solitons evolves into a steady, one-dimensional line soliton with amplitude reduced by an amount proportional to the incidencemore »slope. This strong interaction is identified with the ‘Mach expansion’ of a soliton with an expansive corner, contrasting with the well-known Mach reflection of a soliton with a compressive corner. Interestingly, the critical angles for Mach expansion and reflection are the same. Numerical simulations of the KPII equation quantitatively support the analytical findings.« less
  3. A new type of wave–mean flow interaction is identified and studied in which a small-amplitude, linear, dispersive modulated wave propagates through an evolving, nonlinear, large-scale fluid state such as an expansion (rarefaction) wave or a dispersive shock wave (undular bore). The Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation is considered as a prototypical example of dynamic wavepacket–mean flow interaction. Modulation equations are derived for the coupling between linear wave modulations and a nonlinear mean flow. These equations admit a particular class of solutions that describe the transmission or trapping of a linear wavepacket by an unsteady hydrodynamic state. Two adiabatic invariants of motion are identified that determine the transmission, trapping conditions and show that wavepackets incident upon smooth expansion waves or compressive, rapidly oscillating dispersive shock waves exhibit so-called hydrodynamic reciprocity recently described in Maiden et al.  ( Phys. Rev. Lett. , vol. 120, 2018, 144101) in the context of hydrodynamic soliton tunnelling. The modulation theory results are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations of full KdV dynamics. The integrability of the KdV equation is not invoked so these results can be extended to other nonlinear dispersive fluid mechanic models.
  4. Abstract We prove existence, uniqueness and non-negativity of solutions of certain integral equations describing the density of states u ( z ) in the spectral theory of soliton gases for the one dimensional integrable focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (fNLS) and for the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. Our proofs are based on ideas and methods of potential theory. In particular, we show that the minimising (positive) measure for a certain energy functional is absolutely continuous and its density u ( z ) ⩾ 0 solves the required integral equation. In a similar fashion we show that v ( z ), the temporal analog of u ( z ), is the difference of densities of two absolutely continuous measures. Together, the integral equations for u , v represent nonlinear dispersion relation for the fNLS soliton gas. We also discuss smoothness and other properties of the obtained solutions. Finally, we obtain exact solutions of the above integral equations in the case of a KdV condensate and a bound state fNLS condensate. Our results is a step towards a mathematical foundation for the spectral theory of soliton and breather gases, which appeared in work of El and Tovbis (2020 Phys. Rev. E 101 052207). Itmore »is expected that the presented ideas and methods will be useful for studying similar classes of integral equation describing, for example, breather gases for the fNLS, as well as soliton gases of various integrable systems.« less
  5. Inspired by the recent realization of a two-dimensional (2-D) chiral fluid as an active monolayer droplet moving atop a 3-D Stokesian fluid, we formulate mathematically its free-boundary dynamics. The surface droplet is described as a general 2-D linear, incompressible and isotropic fluid, having a viscous shear stress, an active chiral driving stress and a Hall stress allowed by the lack of time-reversal symmetry. The droplet interacts with itself through its driven internal mechanics and by driving flows in the underlying 3-D Stokes phase. We pose the dynamics as the solution to a singular integral–differential equation, over the droplet surface, using the mapping from surface stress to surface velocity for the 3-D Stokes equations. Specializing to the case of axisymmetric droplets, exact representations for the chiral surface flow are given in terms of solutions to a singular integral equation, solved using both analytical and numerical techniques. For a disc-shaped monolayer, we additionally employ a semi-analytical solution that hinges on an orthogonal basis of Bessel functions and allows for efficient computation of the monolayer velocity field, which ranges from a nearly solid-body rotation to a unidirectional edge current, depending on the subphase depth and the Saffman–Delbrück length. Except in the near-wall limit,more »these solutions have divergent surface shear stresses at droplet boundaries, a signature of systems with codimension-one domains embedded in a 3-D medium. We further investigate the effect of a Hall viscosity, which couples radial and transverse surface velocity components, on the dynamics of a closing cavity. Hall stresses are seen to drive inward radial motion, even in the absence of edge tension.« less