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Title: Propane dehydrogenation over extra-framework In( i ) in chabazite zeolites
Indium on silica, alumina and zeolite chabazite (CHA), with a range of In/Al ratios and Si/Al ratios, have been investigated to understand the effect of the support on indium speciation and its corresponding influence on propane dehydrogenation (PDH). It is found that In 2 O 3 is formed on the external surface of the zeolite crystal after the addition of In(NO 3 ) 3 to H-CHA by incipient wetness impregnation and calcination. Upon reduction in H 2 gas (550 °C), indium displaces the proton in Brønsted acid sites (BASs), forming extra-framework In + species (In-CHA). A stoichiometric ratio of 1.5 of formed H 2 O to consumed H 2 during H 2 pulsed reduction experiments confirms the indium oxidation state of +1. The reduced indium is different from the indium species observed on samples of 10In/SiO 2 , 10In/Al 2 O 3 ( i.e. , 10 wt% indium) and bulk In 2 O 3 , in which In 2 O 3 was reduced to In(0), as determined from the X-ray diffraction patterns of the product, H 2 temperature-programmed reduction (H 2 -TPR) profiles, pulse reactor investigations and in situ transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The BASs in H-CHA facilitate the formation and more » stabilization of In + cations in extra-framework positions, and prevent the deep reduction of In 2 O 3 to In(0). In + cations in the CHA zeolite can be oxidized with O 2 to form indium oxide species and can be reduced again with H 2 quantitatively. At comparable conversion, In-CHA shows better stability and C 3 H 6 selectivity (∼85%) than In 2 O 3 , 10In/SiO 2 and 10In/Al 2 O 3 , consistent with a low C 3 H 8 dehydrogenation activation energy (94.3 kJ mol −1 ) and high C 3 H 8 cracking activation energy (206 kJ mol −1 ) in the In-CHA catalyst. A high Si/Al ratio in CHA seems beneficial for PDH by decreasing the fraction of CHA cages containing multiple In + cations. Other small-pore zeolite-stabilized metal cation sites could form highly stable and selective catalysts for this and facilitate other alkane dehydrogenation reactions. « less
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Chemical Science
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2954 to 2964
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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