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Systematic control of the rate of singlet fission within 6,13-diphenylpentacene aggregates with PbS quantum dot templatesLead chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) are promising acceptors for photovoltaic devices that harness the singlet fission (SF) mechanism. The rate of singlet fission of polyacenes in the presence of QDs is a critical parameter in determining the performance of such devices. The present study demonstrates that the rates of SF in a pentacene derivative, 6,13-diphenylanthracene (DPP), are modulated by forming coaggregates with PbS QDs in aqueous dispersions. PbS QDs generally accelerate SF within DPP aggregates, and the extent of acceleration depends on the size of the QD. The average rate of SF increases from 0.074 ps −1 for DPP-only aggregates to 0.37 ps −1 within DPP-D co-aggregates for QDs with radius 2.2 nm, whereas co-aggregation with the smallest ( r = 1.6 nm) and largest ( r = 2.7 nm) QDs we tried only slightly change the SF rate. The rate variation is associated with (i) the density of surface ligands, which is influenced by the faceting of the PbS surface, and (ii) the local dielectric constant for DPP. To accelerate SF, the ligands should be dense enough to provide sufficient affinity for DPP aggregates and effectively perturb the perpendicular alignment of DPP monomers within aggregates to increase the intermolecularmore »
Despite its importance in electron transfer reactions and radiation chemistry, there has been disagreement over the fundamental nature of the hydrated electron, such as whether or not it resides in a cavity. Mixed quantum/classical simulations of the hydrated electron give different structures depending on the pseudopotential employed, and ab initio models of computational necessity use small numbers of water molecules and/or provide insufficient statistics to compare to experimental observables. A few years ago, Kumar et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119, 9148) proposed a minimalist ab initio model of the hydrated electron with only a small number of explicitly treated water molecules plus a polarizable continuum model (PCM). They found that the optimized geometry had four waters arranged tetrahedrally around a central cavity, and that the calculated vertical detachment energy and radius of gyration agreed well with experiment, results that were largely independent of the level of theory employed. The model, however, is based on a fixed structure at 0 K and does not explicitly incorporate entropic contributions or the thermal fluctuations that should be associated with the room-temperature hydrated electron. Thus, in this paper, we extend the model of Kumar et al. by running Born−Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD)more »
Resolving electron injection from singlet fission-borne triplets into mesoporous transparent conducting oxidesPhotoinduced electron transfer into mesoporous oxide substrates is well-known to occur efficiently for both singlet and triplet excited states in conventional metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) dyes. However, in all-organic dyes that have the potential for producing two triplet states from one absorbed photon, called singlet fission dyes, the dynamics of electron injection from singlet vs. triplet excited states has not been elucidated. Using applied bias transient absorption spectroscopy with an anthradithiophene-based chromophore ( ADT-COOH ) adsorbed to mesoporous indium tin oxide ( nanoITO ), we modulate the driving force and observe changes in electron injection dynamics. ADT-COOH is known to undergo fast triplet pair formation in solid-state films. We find that the electronic coupling at the interface is roughly one order of magnitude weaker for triplet vs. singlet electron injection, which is potentially related to the highly localized nature of triplets without significant charge-transfer character. Through the use of applied bias on nanoITO : ADT-COOH films, we map the electron injection rate constant dependence on driving force, finding negligible injection from triplets at zero bias due to competing recombination channels. However, at driving forces greater than −0.6 eV, electron injection from the triplet accelerates and clearly produces a trend withmore »
Pyrene-stabilized acenes as intermolecular singlet fission candidates: Importance of exciton wave-function convergenceSinglet fission (SF) is a photophysical process considered as a possible scheme to bypass the Shockley–Queisser limit by generating two triplet-state excitons from one high-energy photon. Polyacene crystals, such as tetracene and pentacene, have shown outstanding SF performance both theoretically and experimentally. However, their instability prevents them from being utilized in SF-based photovoltaic devices. In search of practical SF chromophores, we use many-body perturbation theory within the GW approximation and Bethe–Salpeter equation to study the excitonic properties of a family of pyrene-stabilized acenes. We propose a criterion to define the convergence of exciton wave-functions with respect to the fine k-point grid used in the BerkeleyGW code. An open-source Python code is presented to perform exciton wave-function convergence checks and streamline the double Bader analysis of exciton character. We find that the singlet excitons in pyrene-stabilized acenes have a higher degree of charge transfer character than in the corresponding acenes. The pyrene-fused tetracene and pentacene derivatives exhibit comparable excitation energies to their corresponding acenes, making them potential SF candidates. The pyrene-stabilized anthracene derivative is considered as a possible candidate for triplet–triplet annihilation because it yields a lower SF driving force than anthracene.
Quintet-triplet mixing determines the fate of the multiexciton state produced by singlet fission in a terrylenediimide dimer at room temperature
Singlet fission (SF) is a photophysical process in which one of two adjacent organic molecules absorbs a single photon, resulting in rapid formation of a correlated triplet pair (T1T1) state whose spin dynamics influence the successful generation of uncorrelated triplets (T1). Femtosecond transient visible and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of a linear terrylene-3,4:11,12-bis(dicarboximide) dimer (TDI2), in which the two TDI molecules are directly linked at one of their imide positions, reveals ultrafast formation of the (T1T1) state. The spin dynamics of the (T1T1) state and the processes leading to uncoupled triplets (T1) were studied at room temperature for TDI2aligned in 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), a nematic liquid crystal. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the (T1T1) state has mixed5(T1T1) and3(T1T1) character at room temperature. This mixing is magnetic field dependent, resulting in a maximum triplet yield at ∼200 mT. The accessibility of the3(T1T1) state opens a pathway for triplet–triplet annihilation that produces a single uncorrelated T1state. The presence of the5(T1T1) state at room temperature and its relationship with the1(T1T1) and3(T1T1) states emphasize that understanding the relationship among different (T1T1) spin states is critical for ensuring high-yield T1formation from singlet fission.