skip to main content

Title: Implementation and Evaluation of a Unified Turbulence Parameterization Throughout the Canopy and Roughness Sublayer in Noah‐MP Snow Simulations

The Noah‐MP land surface model (LSM) relies on the Monin‐Obukhov (M‐O) Similarity Theory (MOST) to calculate land‐atmosphere exchanges of water, energy, and momentum fluxes. However, MOST flux‐profile relationships neglect canopy‐induced turbulence in the roughness sublayer (RSL) and parameterize within‐canopy turbulence in an ad hoc manner. We implement a new physics scheme (M‐O‐RSL) into Noah‐MP that explicitly parameterizes turbulence in RSL. We compare Noah‐MP simulations employing the M‐O‐RSL scheme (M‐O‐RSL simulations) and the default M‐O scheme (M‐O simulations) against observations obtained from 647 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations and two AmeriFlux stations in the western United States. M‐O‐RSL simulations of snow water equivalent (SWE) outperform M‐O simulations over 64% and 69% of SNOTEL sites in terms of root‐mean‐square‐error (RMSE) and correlation, respectively. The largest improvements in skill for M‐O‐RSL occur over closed shrubland sites, and the largest degradations in skill occur over deciduous broadleaf forest sites. Differences between M‐O and M‐O‐RSL simulated snowpack are primarily attributable to differences in aerodynamic conductance for heat underneath the canopy top, which modulates sensible heat flux. Differences between M‐O and M‐O‐RSL within‐canopy and below‐canopy sensible heat fluxes affect the amount of heat transported into snowpack and hence change snowmelt when temperatures are close to or above the melting point. The surface energy budget analysis over two AmeriFlux stations shows that differences between M‐O and M‐O‐RSL simulations can be smaller than other model biases (e.g., surface albedo). We intend for the M‐O‐RSL physics scheme to improve performance and uncertainty estimates in weather and hydrological applications that rely on Noah‐MP.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Abstract When compared with differences in snow accumulation predicted by widely used hydrological models, there is a much greater divergence among otherwise “good” models in their simulation of the snow ablation process. Here, we explore differences in the performance of the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC), Noah land surface model with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP), the Catchment model, and the third-generation Simplified Simple Biosphere model (SiB3) in their ability to reproduce observed snow water equivalent (SWE) during the ablation season at 10 Snowpack Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations over 1992–2012. During the ablation period, net radiation generally has stronger correlations with observed melt rates than does air temperature. Average ablation rates tend to be higher (in both model predictions and observations) at stations with a large accumulation of SWE. The differences in the dates of last snow between models and observations range from several days to approximately a month (on average 5.1 days earlier than in observations). If the surface cover in the models is changed from observed vegetation to bare soil in all of the models, only the melt rate of the VIC model increases. The differences in responses of models to canopy removal are directly related to snowpack energy inputs, which are further affected by different algorithms for surface albedo and energy allocation across the models. We also find that the melt rates become higher in VIC and lower in Noah-MP if the shrub/grass present at the observation sites is switched to trees. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Land surface processes are vital to the performance of regional climate models in dynamic downscaling application. In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of the simulation by using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model at 10-km resolution to the land surface schemes over Central Asia. The WRF model was run for 19 summers from 2000 to 2018 configured with four different land surface schemes including CLM4, Noah-MP, Pleim-Xiu and SSiB, hereafter referred as Exp-CLM4, Exp-Noah-MP, Exp-PX and Exp-SSiB respectively. The initial and boundary conditions for the WRF model simulations were provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final (NCEP-FNL) Operational Global Analysis data. The ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERAI), the GHCN-CAMS and the CRU gridded data were used to comprehensively evaluate the WRF simulations. Compared with the reanalysis and observational data, the WRF model can reasonably reproduce the spatial patterns of summer mean 2-m temperature, precipitation, and large- scale atmospheric circulation. The simulations, however, are sensitive to the option of land surface scheme. The performance of Exp-CLM4 and Exp-SSiB are better than that of Exp-Noah-MP and Exp-PX assessed by Multivariable Integrated Evaluation (MVIE) method. To comprehensively understand the dynamic and physical mechanisms for the WRF model’s sensitivity to land surface schemes, the differences in the surface energy balance between Ave-CLM4-SSiB (the ensemble average of Exp-CLM4 and Exp-SSiB) and Ave-NoanMP-PX (the ensemble average of Exp-Noah-MP and Exp-PX) are analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the sensible and latent heat fluxes are respectively lower by 30.42 W·m−2and higher by 14.86 W·m−2in Ave-CLM4-SSiB than that in Ave-NoahMP-PX. As a result, large differences in geopotential height occur over the simulation domain. The simulated wind fields are subsequently influenced by the geostrophic adjustment process, thus the simulations of 2-m temperature, surface skin temperature and precipitation are respectively lower by about 2.08 ℃, 2.23 ℃ and 18.56 mm·month−1in Ave-CLM4-SSiB than that in Ave-NoahMP-PX over Central Asia continent.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Accurate precipitation estimates are critical to simulating seasonal snowpack evolution. We conduct and evaluate high‐resolution (4‐km) snowpack simulations over the western United States (WUS) mountains in Water Year 2013 using the Noah with multi‐parameterization (Noah‐MP) land surface model driven by precipitation forcing from convection‐permitting (4‐km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling and four widely used high‐resolution datasets that are derived from statistical interpolation based on in situ measurements. Substantial differences in the precipitation amount among these five datasets, particularly over the western and northern portions of WUS mountains, significantly affect simulated snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth (SD) but have relatively limited effects on snow cover fraction (SCF) and surface albedo. WRF generally captures observed precipitation patterns and results in an overall best‐performed SWE and SD in the western and northern portions of WUS mountains, where the statistically interpolated datasets lead to underpredicted precipitation, SWE, and SD. Over the interior WUS mountains, all the datasets consistently underestimate precipitation, causing significant negative biases in SWE and SD, among which the results driven by the WRF precipitation show an average performance. Further analysis reveals systematic positive biases in SCF and surface albedo across the WUS mountains, with similar bias patterns and magnitudes for simulations driven by different precipitation datasets, suggesting an urgent need to improve the Noah‐MP snowpack physics. This study highlights that convection‐permitting modeling with proper configurations can have added values in providing decent precipitation for high‐resolution snowpack simulations over the WUS mountains in a typical ENSO‐neutral year, particularly over observation‐scarce regions.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Since the 1970s, land cover in central Argentina has shifted away from perennial crops and grasses toward annual crops, largely soy. In this study, we use observations and modeling to understand how this shift in land use has affected the sub‐surface, surface, and atmospheric fluxes of moisture and energy in a flat agricultural area. We analyze the flux tower data from a paired site at Marcos Juarez in central Argentina during the period of the RELAMPAGO field campaign (2018–2019). When compared to perennial alfalfa, the observations over soy show lower evapotranspiration (ET) and specific humidity, higher sensible heat, higher outgoing shortwave radiation, and soil temperature. Water table (WT) depth is shallower below the soy than the alfalfa sites. To better understand the long‐term temporal behavior from 1970s to present, the Budyko framework is used to show that the trends in ET cannot be explained by climate variables alone. We then use the Noah‐MP land surface model calibrated at both soy and alfalfa sites. Long‐term simulations of the calibrated model suggests that ∼95% of precipitation is evaporated in the alfalfa site with negligible recharge and runoff. Contrarily in the case of soy, ET is about 68% of precipitation, leaving nearly 28% for recharge and 4% for runoff. Observed increases in streamflow and decreases in WT depth over time are likely linked to shifts in land cover. Furthermore, the partitioning of net radiation shifts from latent heat to sensible heat resulting in a 250% increase in Bowen ratio (from 0.2 to 0.7).

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Correctly calculating the timing and amount of crop irrigation is crucial for capturing irrigation effects on surface water and energy budgets and land‐atmosphere interactions. This study incorporated a dynamic irrigation scheme into the Noah with multiparameterization land surface model and investigated three methods of determining crop growing season length by agriculture management data. The irrigation scheme was assessed at field scales using observations from two contrasting (irrigated and rainfed) AmeriFlux sites near Mead, Nebraska. Results show that crop‐specific growing‐season length helped capture the first application timing and total irrigation amount, especially for soybeans. With a calibrated soil‐moisture triggering threshold (IRR_CRI), using planting and harvesting dates alone could reasonably predict the first application for maize. For soybeans, additional constraints on growing season were required to correct an early bias in the first modeled application. Realistic leaf area index input was essential for identifying the leaf area index‐based growing season. When transitioning from field to regional scales, the county‐level calibrated IRR_CRI helped mitigate overestimated (underestimated) total irrigation amount in southeastern Nebraska (lower Mississippi River Basin). In these two heavily irrigated regions, irrigation produced a cooling effect of 0.8–1.4 K, a moistening effect of 1.2–2.4 g/kg, a reduction in sensible heat flux by 60–105 W/m2, and an increase in latent heat flux by 75–120 W/m2. Most of irrigation water was used to increase soil moisture and evaporation, rather than runoff. Lacking regional‐scale irrigation timing and crop‐specific parameters makes transferring the evaluation and parameter‐constraint methods from field to regional scales difficult.

    more » « less