Acoustic phased arrays are capable of steering and focusing a beam of sound via selective coordination of the spatial distribution of phase angles between multiple sound emitters. Constrained by the principle of reciprocity, conventional phased arrays exhibit identical transmission and reception patterns which limit the scope of their operation. This work presents a controllable space–time acoustic phased array which breaks time-reversal symmetry, and enables phononic transition in both momentum and energy spaces. By leveraging a dynamic phase modulation, the proposed linear phased array is no longer bound by the acoustic reciprocity, and supports asymmetric transmission and reception patterns that can be tuned independently at multiple channels. A foundational framework is developed to characterize and interpret the emergent nonreciprocal phenomena and is later validated against benchmark numerical experiments. The new phased array selectively alters the directional and frequency content of the incident signal and imparts a frequency conversion between different wave fields, which is further analyzed as a function of the imposed modulation. The space–time acoustic phased array enables unprecedented control over sound waves in a variety of applications ranging from ultrasonic imaging to non-destructive testing and underwater SONAR telecommunication.
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- Scientific Reports
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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