skip to main content

Title: Modeling process–structure–property relationships in metal additive manufacturing: a review on physics-driven versus data-driven approaches
Abstract

Metal additive manufacturing (AM) presents advantages such as increased complexity for a lower part cost and part consolidation compared to traditional manufacturing. The multiscale, multiphase AM processes have been shown to produce parts with non-homogeneous microstructures, leading to variability in the mechanical properties based on complex process–structure–property (p-s-p) relationships. However, the wide range of processing parameters in additive machines presents a challenge in solely experimentally understanding these relationships and calls for the use of digital twins that allow to survey a larger set of parameters using physics-driven methods. Even though physics-driven methods advance the understanding of the p-s-p relationships, they still face challenges of high computing cost and the need for calibration of input parameters. Therefore, data-driven methods have emerged as a new paradigm in the exploration of the p-s-p relationships in metal AM. Data-driven methods are capable of predicting complex phenomena without the need for traditional calibration but also present drawbacks of lack of interpretability and complicated validation. This review article presents a collection of physics- and data-driven methods and examples of their application for understanding the linkages in the p-s-p relationships (in any of the links) in widely used metal AM techniques. The review also contains a more » discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of each type of model, as well as a vision for the future role of both physics-driven and data-driven models in metal AM.

« less
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10361806
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics: Materials
Volume:
4
Issue:
3
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 032002
ISSN:
2515-7639
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Purpose There is recent emphasis on designing new materials and alloys specifically for metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, in contrast to AM of existing alloys that were developed for other traditional manufacturing methods involving considerably different physics. Process optimization to determine processing recipes for newly developed materials is expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of the current work is to use a systematic printability assessment framework developed by the co-authors to determine windows of processing parameters to print defect-free parts from a binary nickel-niobium alloy (NiNb5) using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) metal AM. Design/methodology/approach The printability assessment framework integrates analytical thermal modeling, uncertainty quantification and experimental characterization to determine processing windows for NiNb5 in an accelerated fashion. Test coupons and mechanical test samples were fabricated on a ProX 200 commercial LPBF system. A series of density, microstructure and mechanical property characterization was conducted to validate the proposed framework. Findings Near fully-dense parts with more than 99% density were successfully printed using the proposed framework. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of as-printed parts showed low variability, good tensile strength of up to 662 MPa and tensile ductility 51% higher than what has been reported in the literature. Originality/value Although many literature studies investigatemore »process optimization for metal AM, there is a lack of a systematic printability assessment framework to determine manufacturing process parameters for newly designed AM materials in an accelerated fashion. Moreover, the majority of existing process optimization approaches involve either time- and cost-intensive experimental campaigns or require the use of proprietary computational materials codes. Through the use of a readily accessible analytical thermal model coupled with statistical calibration and uncertainty quantification techniques, the proposed framework achieves both efficiency and accessibility to the user. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that following this framework results in printed parts with low degrees of variability in their mechanical properties.« less
  2. Abstract

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) in metal additive manufacturing (AM) has attracted tremendous interest in order to dramatically improve product reliability. Model-based UQ, which relies on the validity of a computational model, has been widely explored as a potential substitute for the time-consuming and expensive UQ solely based on experiments. However, its adoption in the practical AM process requires overcoming two main challenges: (1) the inaccurate knowledge of uncertainty sources and (2) the intrinsic uncertainty associated with the computational model. Here, we propose a data-driven framework to tackle these two challenges by combining high throughput physical/surrogate model simulations and the AM-Bench experimental data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). We first construct a surrogate model, based on high throughput physical simulations, for predicting the three-dimensional (3D) melt pool geometry and its uncertainty with respect to AM parameters and uncertainty sources. We then employ a sequential Bayesian calibration method to perform experimental parameter calibration and model correction to significantly improve the validity of the 3D melt pool surrogate model. The application of the calibrated melt pool model to UQ of the porosity level, an important quality factor, of AM parts, demonstrates its potential use in AM quality control. Themore »proposed UQ framework can be generally applicable to different AM processes, representing a significant advance toward physics-based quality control of AM products.

    « less
  3. The presence of various uncertainty sources in metal-based additive manufacturing (AM) process prevents producing AM products with consistently high quality. Using electron beam melting (EBM) of Ti-6Al-4V as an example, this paper presents a data-driven framework for process parameters optimization using physics-informed computer simulation models. The goal is to identify a robust manufacturing condition that allows us to constantly obtain equiaxed materials microstructures under uncertainty. To overcome the computational challenge in the robust design optimization under uncertainty, a two-level data-driven surrogate model is constructed based on the simulation data of a validated high-fidelity multiphysics AM simulation model. The robust design result, indicating a combination of low preheating temperature, low beam power, and intermediate scanning speed, was acquired enabling the repetitive production of equiaxed structure products as demonstrated by physics-based simulations. Global sensitivity analysis at the optimal design point indicates that among the studied six noise factors, specific heat capacity and grain growth activation energy have the largest impact on the microstructure variation. Through this exemplar process optimization, the current study also demonstrates the promising potential of the presented approach in facilitating other complicate AM process optimizations, such as robust designs in terms of porosity control or direct mechanical property control.
  4. Abstract Binder jetting is an additive manufacturing process utilizing a liquid-based binding agent to selectively join the material in a powder bed. It is capable of manufacturing complex-shaped parts from a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, and polymers. This paper provides a comprehensive review on currently available reports on metal binder jetting from both academia and industry. Critical factors and their effects in metal binder jetting are reviewed and divided into two categories, namely material-related factors and process-related parameters. The reported data on density, dimensional and geometric accuracy, and mechanical properties achieved by metal binder jetting are summarized. With parameter optimization and a suitable sintering process, ten materials have been proven to achieve a relative density of higher than 90%. Indepth discussion is provided regarding densification as a function of various attributes of powder packing, printing, and post-processing. A few grades of stainless steel obtained equivalent or superior mechanical properties compared to cold working. Although binder jetting has gained its popularity in the past several years, it has not been sufficiently studied compared with other metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes such as powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition. Some aspects that need further research include the understanding ofmore »powder spreading process, binder-powder interaction, and part shrinkage.« less
  5. Machine learning (ML) has shown to be an effective alternative to physical models for quality prediction and process optimization of metal additive manufacturing (AM). However, the inherent “black box” nature of ML techniques such as those represented by artificial neural networks has often presented a challenge to interpret ML outcomes in the framework of the complex thermodynamics that govern AM. While the practical benefits of ML provide an adequate justification, its utility as a reliable modeling tool is ultimately reliant on assured consistency with physical principles and model transparency. To facilitate the fundamental needs, physics-informed machine learning (PIML) has emerged as a hybrid machine learning paradigm that imbues ML models with physical domain knowledge such as thermomechanical laws and constraints. The distinguishing feature of PIML is the synergistic integration of data-driven methods that reflect system dynamics in real-time with the governing physics underlying AM. In this paper, the current state-of-the-art in metal AM is reviewed and opportunities for a paradigm shift to PIML are discussed, thereby identifying relevant future research directions.