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Title: Stars Crushed by Black Holes. II. A Physical Model of Adiabatic Compression and Shock Formation in Tidal Disruption Events

We develop a Newtonian model of a deep tidal disruption event (TDE), for which the pericenter distance of the star,rp, is well within the tidal radius of the black hole,rt, i.e., whenβrt/rp≫ 1. We find that shocks form forβ≳ 3, but they are weak (with Mach numbers ∼1) for allβ, and that they reach the center of the star prior to the time of maximum adiabatic compression forβ≳ 10. The maximum density and temperature reached during the TDE follow much shallower relations withβthan the previously predictedρmaxβ3andTmaxβ2scalings. Belowβ≃ 10, this shallower dependence occurs because the pressure gradient is dynamically significant before the pressure is comparable to the ram pressure of the free-falling gas, while aboveβ≃ 10, we find that shocks prematurely halt the compression and yield the scalingsρmaxβ1.62andTmaxβ1.12. We find excellent agreement between our results and high-resolution simulations. Our results demonstrate that, in the Newtonian limit, the compression experienced by the star is completely independent of the mass of the black hole. We discuss our results in the context of existing (affine) models, polytropic versus non-polytropic stars, and general relativistic effects, which become important when the pericenter of more » the star nears the direct capture radius, atβ∼ 12.5 (2.7) for a solar-like star disrupted by a 106M(107M) supermassive black hole.

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Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
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Article No. 47
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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