skip to main content

Title: Melting and Evolution of Amphibole‐Rich Back‐Arc Abyssal Peridotites at the Mado Megamullion, Shikoku Basin

The Mado Megamullion is an oceanic core complex (OCC) in the Shikoku back‐arc basin within the Philippine Sea Plate. Mantle peridotites (serpentinized) recovered by six dredge and submersible cruises exhibit signatures of extensive deformation. Amorphous pseudomorphs after plagioclase in many of the samples, as well as plagioclase‐spinel intergrowths, are clear evidence of melt stagnation and mantle reaction. Spinels show a wide range of compositions in terms of their Cr#, Mg#, and TiO2content. The presence of apparently magmatic high‐temperature pargasitic amphibole in veins and as replacement of clinopyroxene suggests that it may be a primary or near‐primary mineral crystallized from a hydrous melt which is unusual for abyssal peridotites. Two trace‐element populations of clinopyroxenes are in equilibrium with depleted and enriched basaltic melts, respectively. Rare‐earth element (REE) in the most depleted clinopyroxenes are modeled by 10% fractional melting except for a ubiquitous La‐Ce “kick.” Multiple models of open system melting combined with subsequent mixing of an enriched melt can explain the REE data. Broadly it appears that the peridotites underwent variable degrees of partial melting with moderate influx of enriched melts, which agrees with the other textural and chemical evidence of melt‐rock reaction and re‐fertilization. The compositions of the accumulated melts simulated by the open system models reproduce the enrichments in fluid mobile elements (Ba, U, and Pb) observed in basalts dredged from the Shikoku basin. Back‐arc basin peridotites at Mado Megamullion appear to have a unique petrographic and geochemical character that is distinct from those of peridotites exposed at the seafloor after formation from mid‐ocean ridges.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Many lines of evidence from high P–T experiments, thermodynamic models, and natural observations suggest that slab-derived aqueous fluids, which flux mantle wedges contain variable amounts of dissolved carbon. However, constraints on the effects of H2O–CO2 fluids on mantle melting, particularly at mantle wedge P–T conditions, are limited. Here, we present new piston cylinder experiments on fertile and depleted peridotite compositions with 3.5 wt.% H2O and XCO2 [= molar CO2 / (CO2 + H2O)] of 0.04–0.17. Experiments were performed at 2–3 GPa and 1350°C to assess how temperature, peridotite fertility, and XCO2 of slab-derived fluid affects partial melting in mantle wedges. All experiments produce olivine + orthopyroxene +7 to 41 wt.% partial melt. Our new data, along with previous lower temperature data, show that as mantle wedge temperature increases, primary melts become richer in SiO2, FeO*, and MgO and poorer CaO, Al2O3, and alkalis when influenced by H2O–CO2 fluids. At constant P–T and bulk H2O content, the extent of melting in the mantle wedge is largely controlled by peridotite fertility and XCO2 of slab-fluid. High XCO2 depleted compositions generate ~7 wt.% melt, whereas, at identical P–T, low XCO2 fertile compositions generate ~30 to 40 wt.% melt. Additionally, peridotite fertility and XCO2 have significant effects on peridotite partial melt compositions. At a constant P–T–XCO2, fertile peridotites generate melts richer in CaO and Al2O3 and poorer in SiO2, MgO + FeO, and alkalis. Similar to previous experimental studies, at a constant P–T fertility condition, as XCO2 increases, SiO2 and CaO of melts systematically decrease and increase, respectively. Such distinctive effects of oxidized form of dissolved carbon on peridotite partial melt compositions are not observed if the carbon-bearing fluid is reduced, such as CH4-bearing. Considering the large effect of XCO2 on melt SiO2 and CaO concentrations and the relatively oxidized nature of arc magmas, we compare the SiO2/CaO of our experimental melts and melts from previous peridotite + H2O ± CO2 studies to the SiO2/CaO systematics of primitive arc basalts and ultra-calcic, silica-undersaturated arc melt inclusions. From this comparison, we demonstrate that across most P–T–fertility conditions predicted for mantle wedges, partial melts from bulk compositions with XCO2 ≥ 0.11 have lower SiO2/CaO than all primitive arc melts found globally, even when correcting for olivine fractionation, whereas partial melts from bulk compositions with XCO2 = 0.04 overlap the lower end of the SiO2/CaO field defined by natural data. These results suggest that the upper XCO2 limit of slab-fluids influencing primary arc magma formation is 0.04 < XCO2 < 0.11, and this upper limit is likely to apply globally. Lastly, we show that the anomalous SiO2/CaO and CaO/Al2O3 signatures observed in ultra-calcic arc melt inclusions can be reproduced by partial melting of either CO2-bearing hydrous fertile and depleted peridotites with 0 < XCO2 < 0.11 at 2–3 GPa, or from nominally CO2-free hydrous fertile peridotites at P > 3 GPa.

    more » « less
  2. We present data for lithospheric mantle xenoliths sampled from two alkali basalts in south‐central Vietnam, Pleiku and Xuan Loc, including fertile spinel peridotites. To better determine the origins of the Indochinese subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), including impacts of posited tectonic extrusion, we present major and trace elements, and 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 176Hf/177Hf, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb in xenolith mineral separates. Most peridotites from Pleiku and Xuan Loc have fertile major element compositions, “depleted” and “spoon‐shaped” rare earth element (REE) patterns, interpreted to record prior melt depletion followed by melt metasomatism, and variable but generally depleted isotopic signatures (e.g., 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70238–0.70337 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512921–0.514190). A small group of refractory peridotites have “enriched” REE patterns suggesting more extensive metasomatism and enriched isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70405 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512755–0.512800). The presence of both fertile and refractory xenoliths records a heterogeneous SCLM beneath Vietnam. Based on geothermobarometry calculations, fertile xenoliths have equilibrium temperatures of 923–1,034°C and pressures of 11.7–15.8 kbar, while refractory xenoliths have comparable temperatures of 923–1,006°C, but lower pressures of 7.1–10.0 kbar, suggesting refractory rocks are dominantly present at shallower depths. We suggest that the lithospheric mantle has experienced variable melt extraction around 1.0–1.3 Ga, producing heterogeneous major element compositions. While we cannot rule out partial removal and replacement of the lithosphere, large‐scale delamination is not necessary to explain observed characteristics. The entire SCLM was more recently metasomatized by melts resembling Cenozoic basalts, suggesting recent asthenospheric melting has modified the SCLM by melt infiltration. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract We present microbeam major- and trace-element data from 14 monzodiorites collected from the Malaspina Pluton (Fiordland, New Zealand) with the goal of evaluating processes involved in the production of andesites in lower arc crust. We focus on relict igneous assemblages consisting of plagioclase and amphibole with lesser amounts of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, biotite and quartz. These relict igneous assemblages are heterogeneously preserved in the lower crust within sheeted intrusions that display hypersolidus fabrics defined by alignment of unstrained plagioclase and amphibole. Trace-element data from relict igneous amphiboles in these rocks reveal two distinct groups: one relatively enriched in high field strength element concentrations and one relatively depleted. The enriched amphibole group has Zr values in the range of ∼25–110 ppm, Nb values of ∼5–32 ppm, and Th values up to 2·4 ppm. The depleted group, in contrast, shows Zr values <35 ppm and Nb values <0·25 ppm, and Th is generally below the level of detection. Amphibole crystallization temperatures calculated from major elements range from ∼960 to 830 °C for all samples in the pluton; however, we do not observe significant differences in the range of crystallization temperatures between enriched (∼960–840 °C) and depleted groups (∼940–830 °C). Bulk-rock Sr and Nd isotopes are also remarkably homogeneous and show no apparent difference between enriched (εNdi = 0·1 to –0·1; 87Sr/86Sri = 0·70420–0·70413) and depleted groups (εNdi = 0·3 to –0·4; 87Sr/86Sri = 0·70424–0·70411). Calculated amphibole-equilibrium melt compositions using chemometric equations indicate that melts were highly fractionated (molar Mg# <50), andesitic to dacitic in composition, and were much more evolved than bulk lower continental crust or primitive basalts and andesites predicted to have formed from hydrous melting of mantle-wedge peridotite beneath an arc. We suggest that melts originated from a common, isotopically homogeneous source beneath the Malaspina Pluton, and differences between enriched and depleted trace-element groups reflect varying contributions from subducted sediment-derived melt and sediment-derived fluid, respectively. Our data demonstrate that andesites and dacites were the dominant melts that intruded the lower crust, and their compositions mirror middle and upper bulk-continental crust estimates. Continental crust-like geochemical signatures were acquired in the source region from interaction between hydrous mantle-wedge melts and recycled subducted sediment rather than assimilation and/or remelting of pre-existing lower continental crust. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract Pyroxenite veins and dikes are commonly observed in the mantle section of ophiolites. Because of their mantle occurrence, these pyroxenites are free from crustal contamination and offer a unique opportunity for studying mantle compositions and melt–rock interaction processes. We conducted an integrated petrological and geochemical study of a suite of composite orthopyroxenite, websterite, and pyroxene-bearing dunite veins from the Xiugugabu ophiolite located on the western segment of Yarlung–Zangbo Suture Zone. The dunite is separated from the host peridotite by a layer of pyroxenite, forming a composite vein system. Systematic variations in major, minor, and trace element compositions in minerals across the composite veins are observed. Two generations of orthopyroxenes in the pyroxenites are characterized by high Mg#, low TiO2 concentrations, and depleted patterns of incompatible trace elements. Clinopyroxenes in the pyroxenites are characterized by high Mg#, low contents of TiO2 and Na2O, spooned shaped REE patterns, and a negative Zr anomaly. Through major and trace element modeling, we showed that both orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene were in equilibrium with melts with different compositions. This hypothesis is further confirmed by distinct initial Nd and Hf isotope ratios in the two pyroxenes. A model for the formation of composite pyroxenite veins is developed, whereby hydrous and silica-rich melts percolate along the margins of a dunite channel. The orthopyroxenite was formed by the reaction between a hydrous, silica-rich melt and the surrounding peridotite. The websterite is formed by reactive crystallization of a hybrid melt produced by mixing silica-rich melt and the melt formed by remelting of previously depleted peridotite in the deeper part of the mantle column. The extremely enriched Nd–Hf isotope compositions of the pyroxenite veins (εNd = −20.3 to +11.5 and εHf = −13.2 to +25.3, 125 million years ago) can be explained by the addition of ancient, recycled sediments to the mantle source in a supra-subduction setting. Based on the low-Cr# spinel in the Xiugugabu dunites (Cr# = 19–50) and the depleted nature of the parental melt of the Xiugugabu pyroxenites, we deduced that the formation of pyroxenites postdate the formation of the Xiugugabu ophiolite at ~125–130 Ma. Collectively, results from this study have provided support to the hypothesis that the Xiugugabu ophiolite experience a two-stage evolution, i.e., firstly formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting and subsequently modified in a supra subduction zone. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract Mixing has been widely used in the interpretation of radiogenic isotope ratios and highly incompatible trace element variations in basalts produced by melting of a heterogeneous mantle. The binary mixing model is constructed by considering mass balance of endmember components, which is independent of physical state and spatial distribution of the endmembers in the mantle source. Variations of radiogenic isotope ratios and highly incompatible trace elements in basalts also depend on the size and spatial distribution of chemical and lithological heterogeneities in the mantle source. Here we present a new mixing model and a mixing scheme that take into account of the size, spatial location, and melting history of enriched mantle (EM) and depleted mantle (DM) parcels in the melting column. We show how Sr, Nd, and Hf concentrations and isotope ratios in the aggregated or pooled melt collected at the top of the melting column vary as a function of location of the EM parcel in the melting column. With changing location of the EM parcel in the upwelling melting column, compositions of the pooled melt do not follow a single mixing curve expected by the binary mixing model. Instead, they define a mixing loop that has an enriched branch and a depleted branch joined by two extreme points in composition space. The origin of the mixing loop can be traced back to four types of EM distribution or configuration in the melting column. The shape of the mixing loop depends on the relative melting rate of the EM to that of the DM and the number and spacing of EM parcels in the melting column. Probabilities of sampling the enriched and depleted branches in the pooled melt are proportional to volume fractions of the enriched and depleted materials in the mantle source. Mixing of pooled melts from a bundle of melting columns results in mixing envelopes in the isotope ratio correlation diagrams. The mixing envelope is a useful tool for studying chemical variations in mantle-derived melts. As an application, we consider scattered correlations in 87Sr/86Sr vs. 143Nd/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd vs. 176Hf/177Hf in mid-ocean ridge basalts. We show that such correlations arise naturally from melting of a spatially heterogeneous mantle. 
    more » « less