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Title: A 1.46–2.48 μm spectroscopic atlas of a T6 dwarf (1060 K) atmosphere with IGRINS: first detections of H2S and H2, and verification of H2O, CH4, and NH3 line lists

We present Gemini South/IGRINS observations of the 1060 K T6 dwarf 2MASS J08173001−6155158 with unprecedented resolution ($R\equiv \lambda /\Delta \lambda =45\, 000$) and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 200) for a late-type T dwarf. We use this benchmark observation to test the reliability of molecular line lists used up-to-date atmospheric models. We determine which spectroscopic regions should be used to estimate the parameters of cold brown dwarfs and, by extension, exoplanets. We present a detailed spectroscopic atlas with molecular identifications across the H and K bands of the near-infrared. We find that water (H2O) line lists are overall reliable. We find the most discrepancies amongst older methane (CH4) line lists, and that the most up-to-date CH4 line lists correct many of these issues. We identify individual ammonia (NH3) lines, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) feature at 1.5900 $\mu$m, and a molecular hydrogen (H2) feature at 2.1218 $\mu$m. These are the first unambiguous detections of H2S and H2 absorption features in an extra-solar atmosphere. With the H2 detection, we place an upper limit on the atmospheric dust concentration of this T6 dwarf: at least 500 times less than the interstellar value, implying that the atmosphere is effectively dust-free. We additionally identify several features that do not appear in the model spectra. Our assessment of the line lists is valuable for atmospheric model applications to high-dispersion, low-S/N, high-background spectra, such as an exoplanet around a star. We demonstrate a significant enhancement in the detection of the CH4 absorption signal in this T6 dwarf with the most up-to-date line lists.

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Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
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Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 3160-3178
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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