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Title: In situ synchrotron diffraction and modeling of non-equilibrium solidification of a MnFeCoNiCu alloy

The solidification mechanism and segregation behavior of laser-melted Mn35Fe5Co20Ni20Cu20was firstly investigated via in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction at millisecond temporal resolution. The transient composition evolution of the random solid solution during sequential solidification of dendritic and interdendritic regions complicates the analysis of synchrotron diffraction data via any single conventional tool, such as Rietveld refinement. Therefore, a novel approach combining a hard-sphere approximation model, thermodynamic simulation, thermal expansion measurement and microstructural characterization was developed to assist in a fundamental understanding of the evolution of local composition, lattice parameter, and dendrite volume fraction corresponding to the diffraction data. This methodology yields self-consistent results across different methods. Via this approach, four distinct stages were identified, including: (I) FCC dendrite solidification, (II) solidification of FCC interdendritic region, (III) solid-state interdiffusion and (IV) final cooling with marginal diffusion. It was found out that in Stage I, Cu and Mn were rejected into liquid as Mn35Fe5Co20Ni20Cu20solidified dendritically. During Stage II, the lattice parameter disparity between dendrite and interdendritic region escalated as Cu and Mn continued segregating into the interdendritic region. After complete solidification, during Stage III, the lattice parameter disparity gradually decreases, demonstrating a degree of composition homogenization. The volume fraction of dendrites slightly grew more » from 58.3 to 65.5%, based on the evolving composition profile across a dendrite/interdendritic interface in diffusion calculations. Postmortem metallography further confirmed that dendrites have a volume fraction of 64.7% ± 5.3% in the final microstructure.

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Scientific Reports
Nature Publishing Group
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National Science Foundation
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