Two-dimensional (2D) ternary materials recently generated interest in optoelectronics and energy-related applications, alongside their binary counterparts. To date, only a few naturally occurring layered 2D ternary materials have been explored. The plethora of benefits owed to reduced dimensionality prompted exploration of expanding non-layered ternary chalcogenides into the 2D realm. This work presents a templating method that uses 2D transition metal dichalcogenides as initiators to be converted into the corresponding ternary chalcogenide upon addition of copper, via a solution-phase synthesis, conducted in high boiling point solvents. The process starts with preparation of VSe2nanosheets, which are next converted into Cu3VSe4sulvanite nanosheets (NSs) which retain the 2D geometry while presenting an X-ray diffraction pattern identical with the one for the bulk Cu3VSe4. Both the scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy electron microscopy show the presence of quasi-2D morphology. Recent studies of the sulfur-containing sulvanite Cu3VS4highlight the presence of an intermediate bandgap, associated with enhanced photovoltaic (PV) performance. The Cu3VSe4nanosheets reported herein exhibit multiple UV–Vis absorption peaks, related to the intermediate bandgaps similar to Cu3VS4and Cu3VSe4nanocrystals. To test the potential of Cu3VSe4NSs as an absorber for solar photovoltaic devices, Cu3VSe4NSs thin-films deposited on FTO were subjected to photoelectrochemical testing, showing p-type behavior andmore »
The synthesis of low‐dimensional transition metal nitride (TMN) nanomaterials is developing rapidly, as their fundamental properties, such as high electrical conductivity, lead to many important applications. However, TMN nanostructures synthesized by traditional strategies do not allow for maximum conductivity and accessibility of active sites simultaneously, which is a crucial factor for many applications in plasmonics, energy storage, sensing, and so on. Unique interconnected two‐dimensional (2D) arrays of few‐nanometer TMN nanocrystals not only having electronic conductivity in‐plane, but also allowing transport of ions and electrolyte through the porous nanosheets, which are obtained by topochemical synthesis on the surface of a salt template, are reported. As a demonstration of their application in a lithium–sulfur battery, it is shown that 2D arrays of several nitrides can achieve a high initial capacity of >1000 mAh g−1at 0.2 C and only about 13% degradation over 1000 cycles at 1 C under a high areal sulfur loading (>5 mg cm−2).
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Advanced Materials
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Sulfur Cathode Design Strategies Enabled by Stereolithography Technique and Oxidative Chemical Vapor DepositionIt is urgent to enhance battery energy storage capability to satisfy the increasing energy demand in modern society and reduce the average energy capacity cost. Among the candidates for next-generation high energy storage systems, the lithium-sulfur battery is especially attractive because of its high theoretical specific energy (around 2600 W h kg-1) and cost savings potential.1 In addition to the high theoretical capacity of sulfur cathode as high as 1,673 mA h g-1, sulfur is further appealing due to its abundance in nature, low cost, and low toxicity. Despite these advantages, the application of sulfur cathodes to date has been hindered by a number of obstacles, including low active material loading, low electronic conductivity, shuttle effects, and sluggish sulfur conversion kinetics.2 The traditional 2D planer thick electrode is considered as a general approach to enhance the mass loading of the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery.3 However, the longer diffusion length of lithium ions required in the thick electrode decrease the wettability of the electrolyte (into the entire cathode) and utilization ratio of active materials.4 Encapsulating active sulfur in carbon hosts is another common method to improve the performance of sulfur cathodes by enhancing the electronic conductivity and restricting shuttle effects. Nevertheless, itmore »
Linker Redox Mediated Control of Morphology and Properties in Semiconducting Iron‐Semiquinoid Coordination Polymers**
The emergence of conductive 2D and less commonly 3D coordination polymers (CPs) and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) promises novel applications in many fields. However, the synthetic parameters for these electronically complex materials are not thoroughly understood. Here we report a new 3D semiconducting CP
Fe5(C6O6)3, which is a fusion of 2D Fe‐semiquinoid materials and 3D cubic Fe x (C6O6) materials, by using a different initial redox‐state of the C6O6linker. The material displays high electrical conductivity (0.02 S cm−1), broad electronic transitions, promising thermoelectric behavior ( y S2σ=7.0×10−9 W m−1 K−2), and strong antiferromagnetic interactions at room temperature. This material illustrates how controlling the oxidation states of redox‐active components in conducting CPs/MOFs can be a “pre‐synthetic” strategy to carefully tune material topologies and properties in contrast to more commonly encountered post‐synthetic modifications.
A Gel‐Free Ti 3 C 2 T x ‐Based Electrode Array for High‐Density, High‐Resolution Surface Electromyography
Wearable sensors for surface electromyography (EMG) are composed of single‐ to few‐channel large‐area contacts, which exhibit high interfacial impedance and require conductive gels or adhesives to record high‐fidelity signals. These devices are also limited in their ability to record activation across large muscle groups due to poor spatial coverage. To address these challenges, a novel high‐density EMG array is developed based on titanium carbide (Ti3C2T
x) MXene encapsulated in parylene‐C. Ti3C2T xis a 2D nanomaterial with excellent electrical, electrochemical, and mechanical properties, which forms colloidally stable aqueous dispersions, enabling safe, scalable solutions‐processing. Leveraging the excellent combination of metallic conductivity, high pseudocapacitance, and ease of processability of Ti3C2T xMXene, the fabrication of gel‐free, high‐density EMG arrays is demonstrated, which are ≈8 µm thick, feature 16 recording channels, and are highly skin conformable. The impedance of Ti3C2T xelectrodes in contact with human skin is 100–1000× lower than the impedance of commercially available electrodes which require conductive gels to be effective. Furthermore, the arrays can record high‐fidelity, low‐noise EMG, and can resolve muscle activation with improved spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity compared to conventional gelled electrodes. Overall, the results establish Ti3C2T x‐based bioelectronic interfaces as a powerful platform technology for high‐resolution, noninvasive wearable sensing technologies.
Enabling High-Rate Long-lifespan Lithium-Sulfur Batteries via Stereolithography Technique and Oxidative Chemical Vapor DepositionEnhancing battery energy storage capability and reducing the cost per average energy capacity is urgent to satisfy the increasing energy demand in modern society. The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is especially attractive because of its high theoretical specific energy (around 2600 W h kg-1), low cost, and low toxicity.1 Despite these advantages, the practical utilization of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries to date has been hindered by a series of obstacles, including low active material loading, shuttle effects, and sluggish sulfur conversion kinetics.2 The traditional 2D planer thick electrode is considered as a general approach to enhance the mass loading of the Li-S battery.3 However, the longer diffusion length of lithium ions, which resulted in high tortuosity in the compact stacking thick electrode, decreases the penetration ability of the electrolyte into the entire cathode.4 Although an effort to induce catalysts in the cathode was made to promote sulfur conversion kinetic conditions, catalysts based on transition metals suffered from the low electronic conductivity, and some elements (i.e.: Co, Mn) may even absorb and restrict polysulfides for further reaction. 5 To mitigate the issues listed above, herein we propose a novel sulfur cathode design strategy enabled by additive manufacturing and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD).more »