The stability of a horizontally and vertically sheared surface jet is examined, with a focus on the vertical structure of the resultant eddies. Over a flat bottom, the instability is mixed baroclinic/barotropic, producing strong eddies at depth that are characteristically shifted downstream relative to the surface eddies. Baroclinic instability is suppressed over a large slope for retrograde jets (with a flow antiparallel to topographic wave propagation) and to a lesser extent for prograde jets (with flow parallel to topographic wave propagation), as seen previously. In such cases, barotropic (lateral) instability dominates if the jet is sufficiently narrow. This yields surface eddies whose size is independent of the slope but proportional to the jet width. Deep eddies still form, forced by interfacial motion associated with the surface eddies, but they are weaker than under baroclinic instability and are vertically aligned with the surface eddies. A sinusoidal ridge acts similarly, suppressing baroclinic instability and favoring lateral instability in the upper layer. A ridge with a 1-km wavelength and an amplitude of roughly 10 m is sufficient to suppress baroclinic instability. Surveys of bottom roughness from bathymetry acquired with shipboard multibeam echo sounding reveal that such heights are common beneath the Kuroshio, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and, to a lesser extent, the Gulf Stream. Consistent with this, vorticity and velocity cross sections from a 1/50° HYCOM simulation suggest that Gulf Stream eddies are vertically aligned, as in the linear stability calculations with strong topography. Thus, lateral instability may be more common than previously thought, owing to topography hindering vertical energy transfer.
Horizontal distribution of the vertically integrated barotropic‐to‐baroclinic energy conversion has been widely studied to examine the generation of internal tides at steep topography. The vertical structure of the energy conversion that provides insights into the associated dynamics, however, is masked by the often used depth‐integrated approach. Here, we reveal the vertical profile of barotropic‐to‐baroclinic energy conversion by employing an idealized ocean model in a slope‐shelf context forced by
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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